1. What do you understand by action? What is the relative proportion allocated to it in Aristotle's theory of tragedy? (Aristotle: Poetics)
2. In what ways does Brecht reject tragedy? (Raymond Williams: Modern Tragedy)
3. What impact does the hierarchy of discourses in a classic realist text have on the reader? (Catherine Belsey: Critical Practice)
4. 'Art never improves'. How does this consciousness help the poet recognize his place in the literary tradition? (T.S. Eliot: Tradition and Individual Talent)
5. '.....of all sciences is our poet the monarch'. How does Sydney defend this claim? (Philip Sydney: An Apology for Poetry)
6. How does the death of the hero contribute to the world of tragedy? Give your answer with reference to Hegel and Nietzsche. (Raymond Williams: Modern Tragedy)
7. Critically evaluate any ONE of the following extracts:
(i) All these things entered you
As if they were both the door and what came through it.
They marked the spot, marked time and held it open.
A mower parted the bronze sea of water.
Two men with a cross-cut kept it swimming
Into a felled beech backwards and forwards
So they seemed to row the steady earth.
(ii) Let the world I knew become the space
Between the words that I had by heart
And all the other speech that always was
Becoming the language of the country that
I came to in nineteen-fifty-one:
Barley-gelled, a freckled six-year-old,
Overdressed and sick on the plane
When all of England to an Irish child
Was nothing more than what you'd lost and how:
Was the teacher in the London convert who
When I produced "I amn't" in the classroom
Turned and said- "you're not in Ireland now".