6. PAST PAPERS

PAPER I - POETRY
1. YEAR 2004
Attempt FOUR questions. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Refer THREE of the following passages to their context and explain these critically. 
(i) Are those her ribs through which the Sun
Did peer, as through a grate?
And is that woman all her crew?
Is that a Death? And are there two?
Is Death that  woman's mate?
(ii) Forlorn! The very word is like a bell
To toll me back from thee to my sole self!
Adieu! The fancy cannot cheat so well
As she is famed to do, deceiving elf. 
(iii) You went on and on. Here were reasons
To recite Chaucer. Then came the Wyf of Bath,
Your favourite character in all literature. 
We were rapt. And the cows were enthralled. 
(iv) Closed like confessionals, they thread
Loud moons of cities, giving back
None of the glances they absorb. 
Light glossy grey, arms on a plaque. 
They come to rest at any kerb. 
(v) Now to pry into roots, to finger slime
To stare, big eyed Narcissus, into some spring
Is beneath all adult dignity, I rhyme
To see myself, to set the darkness echoing. 
(vi) How the Chimney sweeper's cry
Every blackening Church appalls; 
And the hapless soldier's sigh
Runs in blood down Palace walls. 
2. "Without contrariness is no progression" said Blake. From your reading of his poems, describe how, as Blake move from Songs of Innocence to Songs of Experience, :"the exquisitely tender vision of childhood is crossed and shadowed by the darker realities of life". 
3. "In the Rime of the Ancient Mariner", Coleridge exercises an imaginative realism; however unnatural his events, they are formed from natural elements, and we believe in them". Discuss. 
4. "Hyperion is a veritable gallery of studies in pain" and "what Keats achieves above all in Hyperion is the sublimation of suffering". What is you opinion?
5. Critically examine one of the following poems by Seamus Heaney:
(i) A Constable Calls
(ii) The Tollund Mand
6. Write a critical note on the use of animal imagery for symbolic purpose in the poetry of Ted Hughes. 
7. What are the various themes in the poems of Philip Larkin you have read?
2. YEAR 2005
Attempt FOUR questions. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Refer THREE of the following passages to their context and explain these critically.
(i) And into my garden stole
When the night had veiled the pole
In the morning glad I see
My foe outstretched beneath the tree
(ii) There was a time when, thought may path was rough,
This joy within me called me dallied with distress,
And all misfortunes were but as the stuff
Whence fancy made me dreams of happiness.
(iii) Where are the songs of spring? Any, where are they?
Think not of them, thou hast thy music too,
While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day
And touch the stubble plains with rosy hue.
(iv) We came where the salmon were so many,
So steady, so spaced, so far aimed
On their inner map, England could add
Only the sooty twilight of South Yorkshire
Hung with the drumming drift of Lancstars
Till the world had seemed capsizing slowly.
(v) Never such innocence,
Never before or since,
And changed itself to past
Without a word - the men
Leaving the gardens tidy,
The thousands of marriages
Lasting a little while longer'
Never such innocence again.
(vi) A shadow bobbed in the window
He was snapping the carrier spring
Over the ledger. His boot pushed off
And the bicycle ticked, ticked, ticked.
2. In the last analysis, should we view the songs of innocence and songs of experience as mere contrary states of the soul, or both as necessary in the cycle of being?
3. Keats's poetry puts man's mind exactly where it should be -- On a delicate balance; below which it cannot descend; beyond where it has no will to rise -- In light of this statement critically evaluate Keats's ODES.
4. Imagination and fancy raised Coleridge above the level of the physical. Comment.
5. Discuss Bardic quality in the poems of Seamus Heaney.
6. Larkin's poetry shows a yearning for metaphysical absolutes for states of being imagined as it were beyond the reach of being. Discuss.
7. "He is famous for violence in style and subject -- matter"? Discuss in the light of Ted Hughes's poems in the syllabus?
3. YEAR 2006
Attempt FOUR questions. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Refer THREE of the following passages to their context and explain these critically.
(i) For Mercy has a human heart,
Pity a human face,
And love, the human form divine,
And peace, the human dress.
(ii) Then reached the caverns measureless to man,
And sank in tumult to a lifeless ocean:
And 'mid this tumult Kubla heard from far
Ancestral voices prophesying war!
(iii) When old age shall this generation waste,
Thou shalt remain, in midst of other woe
Than ours, a friend to man, to whom thou Say'st,
'Beauty is truth, truth beauty', --- that is all.
Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.
(iv) Or, after dark, will dubious women come
To make their children touch a particular stone;
Pick simples for a cancer; or on some
Advised night see walking a dead one?
(v) He had unstrapped
The heavy ledger, and my father
Was making till age returns
In acres, roods and perches.
(vi) A cool small evening shrunk to a dog bark and the clank of bucket
And you listening
A spider's web tense for the dew's touch.
A pail lifted, still and brimming - mirror
To tempt a first star to a tremor.
2. Blake figures prominently among the poets who brought the Romantic Revival. Discuss.
3. Critically examine the function of the wind in the development of thought in Dejection -- An Ode.
4. The sharp contrast between the desire for beauty and awareness of pain makes Keats' Odes dramatic. Discuss.
5. 'Ted Hughes interests in dreams and his recourse to occult symbolism are lined with the practice of many other modern poets'. Discuss.
6. 'There are poems of Larkin which tentatively explore the possibility of positive meaning in life. Comment.
7. What are the various themes in the poems of Seamus Heaney you have read?
4. YEAR 2007
Attempt FOUR questions. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Refer THREE of the following passages to their context and explain these critically.
(i) Tiger! Tiger! Burning bright
In the forests of the night,
What Immortal hand or eye
Could frame thy fearful symmetry?
(ii) An orphan's course would drag to hell
A spirit from on high;
But oh! More horrible than that
Is a curse in a dead man's eye!
Seven days, seven nights, I saw that cure,
And yet I could not die.
(iii) Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard
Are sweeter; therefore, ye soft pipes, play on;
Not to the sensual ear, but, more endear'd,
Pipe top the spirit ditties of no tone;
(iv) And the countryside not caring;
The place --- names all hazed over
Shadowing Doomsday lines
Under Wheat's restless silence'
(v) Till with a sudden sharp bot stink of fox
It enters the dark hole of the head
The window is starless still; the clock ticks,
The page is printed.
2. Are Blake's poems symbolic? Illustrate with examples.
3. Coleridge is often described as a "poet of the imagination". Explain.
4. What are some of the recurring motifs that appear throughout the six odes?
5. Heaney's 'A Constable Calls' is based on memory. It talks of distrust and fear. Elaborate.
6. The 'Though -- Fox' has often been acknowledged as one of the most completely realized and artistically satisfying of the poems. Discuss.
7. The poem 'Ambulances' is an expression of Larkin's concept of Death. Discuss.
5. YEAR 2008
Attempt any FOUR questions, question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Explain with reference to their context THREE of the following extracts:
(i) For where'er the sun does shine,
And where'er the rain does fall,
Babe can never hunger there,
Nor poverty the mind appall,
(ii) Season of mist and mellow fruitfulness,
Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;
Conspiring with him how to load and bless,
With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eaves run;
(iii) Those sounds which oft raised me, whilst they awed,
And sent my soul abroad,
Might now perhaps their wanted impulse give,
Might startle this dull pain and make it move and live!
(iv) And sense the solving emptiness
That lies just under ail we do,
So permanent and blank and true.
(v) ....................There the body
Separated, golden and imperishable,
From its doubting thought a spirit beacon
Lit by the power of salmon
(vi) Out there in Jutland
In the old man-killing parishes
I will feel lost,
Unhappy and at home
2. Blake is often anthologized in collection designed for children. Comment on the capacity of Blake's verse to delight such a wide audience.
3. Kubla Khan is a poem about creativity and perfection. Discuss.
4. Give a detailed comparison of Ode to a Nightingale and Ode to a Grecian Urn.
5. Larkin's poems move from the particular to the general, from the descriptive to the contemplative. Discuss.
6. Discuss the poet's relationship with his subject in Chaucer and Full Moon and Little Freida.
7. Heaney digs into the past with his 'squat pen'. Explain.
6. YEAR 2009
Attempt any FOUR questions, question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Explain with reference to their context THREE of the following extracts:
(i) Now to pry into roots, to finger slime
To stare big eyed Narcissus, into some spring
Is beneath all adult dignity, I rhyme
To see myself, to set the darken echoing.
(ii) The human dress is forged iron,
The human form, a fiery forge,
The human face, a furnace sealed
The human heart, its hungry gorge,
(iii) For borne away in deadened air
May go the sudden shut of loss
And for a second get it whole,
So permanent and blank and true.
The fastened doors recede.
(iv) And how did you stop? I can't remember
You stopping, I Imagine they reeled away -
Rolling eyes, as if driven from their fodder.
I imagine I shooed them away
(v) Could I revive within me
Her symphony and song,
To such a deep delight 'twould win me,
That music loud and long,
I would build that dome in air,
That sunny dome! those caves of ice!
(vi) Away! Away! For I will fly to thee,
Not charioted by Bacchus and his pards,
But on the viewless wings of poesy,
Though the dull brain perplexes and retards:
2. Compare and contrast "Holy Thursday 1" and "Holy Thursday 2". (BLAKE)
3. "The Ancient Mariner" clearly contains a large element of personal allegory of fear and guilt and loneliness, says Kathleen Coburn. Discuss. (COLERIDGE)
4. How do the last lines of the "Ode on a Grecian Urn" form a fitting equation for the poem? (KEATS)
5. Comment on the theme of change in Larkin's poetry.
6. Illustrate Heaney's relationship with Ireland with close reference to "Toome Road" and "Casting and Gathering".
7. The "Thought Fox" is a poem about metaphor. Discuss.
7. YEAR 2009 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions, question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following extracts:
(i) I wander through each dirty street
Near where the dirty Thames does flow,
And mark in every face I meet
Marks of weakness marks of woe.
(ii) A shadow bobbed in the window,
He was snapping the carrier spring
Over the ledger. His boot pushed off
And the bicycle ticked, ticked, ticked.
(iii) ..... how we live measures our own nature
And at his age having no more to show
Than one hired box should make him pretty sure
He warranted no better, I don't know.
(iv) I imagine this midnight moment's forest
Something else is alive
Beside the clock's loneliness
And this blank page where my fingers move
(v) But now affliction bow me down to earth;
Nor care I that they rob me of my mirth;
But Oh! each visitation
Suspends what nature gave me at birth,
My shaping spirit of Imagination.
(vi) Then with the slow incline of his broad breast,
Like to a diver in the pearly seas
Forward he stoop'd over the airy shore
And plung'd all noiseless into the deep night.
2. With reference to the poetry of William Blake interpret innocence and experience.
3. Discuss the role of imagery in "Kubla Khan" (Coleridge)
4. Discuss the significance of the nightingale in Keats' "Ode to a Nightingale".
5. Larkin's poetry records loss. Discuss.
6. Discuss "Personal Helicon" as a poem about construction of the artist. (Heaney)
7. The salmon function as poetic inspiration in "That Morning". Discuss. (Hughes)
8. YEAR 2010
Attempt any FOUR questions, question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Explain with reference to the context any 3 of the following.
(i) I love hushed air. I trust contrariness
Years and years go past and I do not move
For I see that when one man casts, the other gathers
And then vice verse, without changing sides.
(ii) Through the window I see no star:
Something more near
Though deeper within darkness
Is entering the loneliness:
(iii) 'I'll take it.' So it happens that I lie
Where Mr. Bleaney lay, and stub my fags
On the same saucer-souvenir,....
(iv) Who are these coming to the sacrifice?
To what green alter, O mysterious priest,
Lead'st thou that heifer lowing at the skies,
And all her silken flanks with garlands drest?
(v) ..... England could add
Only the sooty twilight of South Yorkshire
Hung with the drumming drift of Lancaster
Till the world had seemed capsizing slowly.
(vi) Sowers of seed, erectors of headstones....
O charioteers, above your dormant guns,
It stands here still, stands vibrant as you pass,
The invisible, untoppled omphalos.
2. Compare and contrast any two Odes of Keats' that you have read.
3. What does the speaker in 'Mr. Bleaney' share with the former tenant of the room? (Larkin)
4. 'Hence, viper thoughts, that coil around my mind,
Reality's dark dream!'
How far do these lines illustrate 'Dejection: An Ode' by Coleridge.
5. 'That Morning' and 'Thought Fox' exemplify the importance of energy and single minded concentration in Hughes. Explain.
6. Heaney's metaphors are sensuously alive. Discuss with reference to 'Personal Helicon' and 'Tollund Man'.
7. 'London' is a 'Sick Rose'. How far does Blake's poetry bear out the truth of this statement.
9. YEAR 2010 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions, question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following extracts:
(i) Out there is Jutland
In the old man-killing parishes
I will feel lost, Unhappy and at home.
(ii) I imagine I shooed them away. But
Your sostenuto rendering of Chaucer
Was already perpetual, what followed
Found my attention too full
And had to go back into oblivion.
(iii) ..... Far
From the exchange of love to lie
Unreachable inside a room
The traffic parts to let go by
Brings closer what is left to come
(iv) Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store?
Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find
Thee sitting careless on a granary floor, ...
(v) And I had done a hellish thing,
And it would work 'em woe;
For all averred, I had killed the bird
That made the breeze to blow.
(vi) To see a World in a grain of sand,
And a Heaven in a wild flower,
Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand,
And Eternity in an hour.
2. Draw closely on 'Tollund Man' and 'Toome Road' to discuss Heaney as an Irish poet.
3. Compare and contrast 'Chaucer' and 'Full Moon' and 'Little Frieda'. (Hughes)
4. A Larkin poem moves from being descriptive to being contemplative. Discuss.
5. With close reference to any two poems, discuss the imagery that Keats uses.
6. Kubla Khan is a poem about positive energy. Discuss with reference to the images used in the poem. (Coleridge)
10. YEAR 2011
Attempt FOUR questions. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Attempt any FOUR of the following with reference to the context:
(i) Those long uneven lines
Standing as patiently
As if they were stretched outside
The Oval or Villa Park,
(ii) ..... You went on ---
And twenty cows stayed with you hypnotized.
You stopping.
(iii) Something of his sad freedom
As he rode the tumbrel
Should come to me, driving,
Saying names .....
(iv) Seasons of mists and mellow fruitfulness,
Close bosomed -  friend of the maturing sun;
Conspiring with him how to load and bless
With fruit the vines that round the thatch eves run;
(v) And did those feet in ancient time
Walk upon England's mountain green?
(vi) It is an ancient Mariner,
And he stoppeth one of three
'By thy long grey beard and glittering eye,
Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?
2. Discuss the role of doubt and contemplation in 'Mr. Bleaney' and 'Church Going'.
3. Compare the power of salmon in 'That Morning' with the power of the fox in 'Though Fox'.
4. 'Toome Road' and 'Casting and Gathering' exemplify Heaney's positive vision of Ireland. Explain.
5. Discuss the style and structure of 'Hyperion Book I'
6. Discuss in detail the relation between images used in 'Kubla Khan'.
7. In what ways do 'Songs of Innocence' compare with 'Songs of Experience' in Blake?
11. YEAR 2011 (Supplementary)
Attempt FOUR questions. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Explain any FOUR of the following with reference to the context:
(i) I could risk blasphemy,
Consecrate the cauldron bog
Our holy ground and prey
Him to make germinate ----
(ii) Solemn to stand there in the pollen light
Waist-deep in wild salmon swaying massed
As from the hand of God.
(iii) ..... Poor soul,
They whisper at their own distress;
(iv) That sunny dome! Those caves of ice!
And all who heard should see them there,
And all should cry, Beware! Beware!
His flashing eyes, his floating hair!
(v) Tiger! Tiger! Burning bright
In the forest of the night,
What immortal hand or eye
Could frame thy fearful symmetry.
(vi) Where are the songs of spring?
Ay, where are they?
Think not of them, thou hast thine music too, ....
2. Discuss 'Church Going' and 'MCMXIV' as poems about changes.
3. Explore the poet's relationship with the object of his observation in 'Thought Fox' and 'Chaucer'.
4. How does Heaney's poetry exemplify his relationship with his land?
5. 'Ode to a Nightingale' and 'Ode on a Grecian Urn' are poems about art. Explain.
6. Coleridge is concerned with human torment in his poetry. Argue.
7. Discuss 'Holy Thursday I and II' with reference to other poems of Blake's that you have read.
12. YEAR 2012
Attempt FOUR questions. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Explain with reference to their context any THREE of the following;
(i) Since someone will forever be surprising
A hunger in himself to be more serious,
And gravitating with it to this ground,
Which, he once heard was proper to grow wise in, .....
(ii) Now, to pry into roots, to finger slime,
To stare, big-eyed Narcissus, into some spring
Is beneath all adult dignity. I rhyme
To see myself, to set the darkness echoing.
(iii) Cows are going home in the lane there, looping the hedges
with their warm wreathes of breath
A dark river of blood, many boulders,
Balancing unspilled milk.
(iv) Ah Sunflower, weary of time,
Who countest the steps of the sun;
Seeking after that sweet golden clime
Where the traveller's journey is done;
(v) Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn
Among the river sallows, bone aloft
Or sinking as the light wind lives or dies -------
(vi) The seraph-band, each waved his hand;
No voice did they impart -
No voice; but oh! the silence sank
Like music on my heart.
2. 'Ode to Nightingale' and 'Ode on a Grecian Urn' are poems about art. Explain. (Keats: Odes)
3. Heaney's poetry explores man's relationship with history. Discuss. (Heaney)
4. Show how Blake sensitizes the reader to the inter-relatedness of man and other life forms. (William Blake)
5. Discuss the use of epiphany in Larkin's 'Mr. Bleaney' and 'Ambulances'. (Larkin)
6. Artist's observation is a common theme between Hughes' poems 'Chaucer' and 'Full Moon' and 'Little Frieda'. Explain. (Ted Hughes)
7. Discuss the theme of torment in the poetry of Coleridge. (Coleridge)
13. YEAR 2012 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions including Question No. 1. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Explain THREE of the excerpts that follow and refer them to their context:
(i) But if he stood and watched the frigid wind
Tousling the clouds lay on the fusty bed
Telling himself that this was home and grinned,
And shivered, without shaking off the dread
(ii) And all should cry: Beware! Beware!
His flashing eyes, his floating hair!
Weave a circle round him thrice,
And close your eyes with holy dread
(iii) How the chimney-sweeper's cry
Every blackening church appals,
And the hapless soldier's sigh
Runs in blood down palace walls
(iv) And little own, they streets forever more
Will silent be; and not a soul to tell
Why thou art desolate, can ever return
(v) Till, with a sudden sharp hot stink of fox
It enters the dark hole of the head
The windows is starless still; the clock ticks,
The page is printed.
(vi) Out there is Jutland
In the old man-killing parishes
I will feel lost,
Unhappy and at home.
2. Discuss the position of the speaker in any two poems of Heaney from your syllabus. (S. Heaney)
3. Focus and sustained observation is a running concern in the poetry of Ted Hughes. Comment. (Ted Huges)
4. Larkin's poetry is the outcome of detached observation. Comment. (Larkin)
5. Discuss the style and structure of Kubla Khan. (S.T. Coleridge)
6. The Grecian Urn is a call for balance in poetry. Discuss. (J. Keats)
7. Analyze Blake's social consciousness with detailed reference to his poetry. (W. Blake)
14. YEAR 2013
Attempt any FOUR questions. Question No.1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Answer any FOUR of the following with reference to the context:
(i) It seem'd no force could wake him from his place;
But there came one, who with a kindred hand
Touch'd his wide shoulders, after bending low
With reverence, though to one who knew it not.
(ii) What a multitude they seem'd, these flowers of London town!
Seated in companies they sit with radiance all their own.
(iii) And I had done a hellish thing
And it would work'em woe:
For all averr'd, I had kill'd the Bird
That made the Breeze to blow
(iv) And you could not stop. What would happen
If you were to stop? Would they attack you,
Scared by the shock of silence, or wanting more?
(v) The traffic parts to let go by
Brings closer what is left to come
And dulls to distance all we are.
(vi) Some day I will go to Arhus
To see his peat-brown head,
The mild pods of his eyelids,
His pointed skin cap, ...
2. How does the dramatic spirit expresses itself in the Odes by Keats?
3. Blake said that without contraries there is no progression: How is this brought out by Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience?
4. Discuss the thematic tension in "Dejection: An Ode" by Keats.
5. Larkin's poetry expresses discontent. Discuss with close reference to the poems you have read.
6. Discuss "Thought Fox" and "That Morning" as journeys to fulfillment.
7. How does "Tallund Man" describe the anxiety of Heaney as an Irish writer?
15. YEAR 2014
Attempt any FOUR questions including question No.1. which is COMPULSORY. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Explain any FOUR of the following with reference to the context.
(i) Ah Sunflower, weary of time,
Who countest the steps of the sun;
Seeking after that sweet golden clime
Where the traveller's journey is done;
(ii) Cows are going home in the lane there, looping the
hedges with their warm wreatches of breath.
(iii) But if he stood there and watched the frigid wind
Tousling the clouds, lay on the fusty bed
Telling himself that this was home and grinned,
And shivered, without-shaking off the dread...
(iv) Something of his sad freedom
As he rode the tumbrel
Should come to me, driving,...
(v) And 'mid this tumult Kubla heard from far
Ancestral voices prophesying war!
(vi) And the sad Goodess weeping at his feet
Until at length old Saturn lifted up
Has faded eyes, and saw his kingdom gone
And all the gloom and sorrow of the place,
And that fair kneeling Goddess:
2. With close reference to Blake's 'Songs of Experience' describe the moral structure he desires in the English society.
3. Comment on the structure of 'The Ancient Mariner'.
4. How far does the imager in the 'Ode to a Nightingale' complement its thematic concern?
5. Larkin's poetry is about coming to terms with loss. Comment.
6. Discuss Heaney's perspective on Ireland in 'Toome Road' and 'Casting and Gathering'.
7. 'The Though Fox' is a poem about metaphor. Discuss.
16. YEAR 2015
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. Question No. 1 is COMPULSORY.
1. Attempt any FOUR of the following with reference to the context.
(i) Beneath them sit the aged men, wise guardians of the poor.
Then cherish pity, lest you drive an angel from your door.
(ii) Could I revive within me
Her symphony and song,
To such a deep delight 'twould win me,
(iii) Ah, happy, happy boughs! That cannot shed
Your leaves, nor ever bid the spring adieu;
And, happy melodist, unwearied,
For ever piping songs for ever new;
(iv) They come to rest at any kerb:
All streets in time are visited.
(v) Your voice went over the fields towards Grantchester,
It must have sounded lost. But the cows
Watched, then approached: they appreciated Chaucer.
(vi) He had unstrappped
The heavy ledger, and my father was making tillage
returns in acres, roods and perches.
2. In what ways do Blake's SONGS OF EXPERIENCE form a companion body to his SONGS OF INNOCENCE?
3. Discuss the use of contrast in KUBLA KHAN.
4. How far may ODE TO AUTUMN be read as recognition of harmony in the natural world?
5. Comment on Larkin's tone of ironic detachment with detailed reference to at least two of his poems.
6. Discuss the relationship between 'the artist' and 'the work of art' in the poetry of Ted Hughes.
7. What value does Heaney ascribe to contrariness in Irish scenario? Illustrate with detailed reference to at least two of his poems.

PAPER II - DRAMA

1. YEAR 2004
Attempt FOUR questions in all. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following passages:
(i) You needn't bother. I saw the pistol Loevborg had when they found him. I recognized it at once. From yesterday. And other occasions.
(ii) You must try to understand. Things have changed. It used to be just the gentry and the peasants. But not there is a new sort of visitor ... people who want to come here in the summer.
(iii) What do you want to explain? You are fully in line with the Holy Congregation's decree of 1616. You cannot be faulted.
(iv) He imagines when I see him indefatigable I'll regret my decision. Such is his miserable scheme.
(v) Wait, I want to give you a souvenir to take with you.
2. Discuss The Cherry Orchard as a comedy.
3. Bring out the symbolic significance of the title of Bond's "The Sea".
4. The play Hedda Gabler is the product of a mind deeply preoccupied with the nature of power, particularly the power of one mind to influence and impose itself upon another. Discuss.
5. ".... It is a play what contains very little element of caricature. This does not turn his Galileo into the self-portrait it is sometimes alleged to be ...". What is your opinion?
6. "Yet, If Beckett devalues language, he continues to use it and, bilingually, to show a mastery of it". How far do you agree with this view? Waiting for Godot.
7. Write a critical note on the following topics:
(i) The character of Lopakhin in The Cherry Orchard.
(ii) The character of Loevborg in Hedda Gabler.
2. YEAR 2005
Attempt FOUR questions in all. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following passages:
(i) (gesture towards the Universe) This one is enough for you. (silence). It's not nice of you, Didi. Whom am I to tell my private nightmares to if I can't tell them to you?
(ii) You can charge each tenant twenty-five roubles a year per hectare per plot --- easily. If you advertise right away I guarantee by the autumn you won't have a single plot left ---.
(iii) Yes, but have you noticed how strong and healthy she's looking? And how she's filled out since, we went away?
(iv) You must tell me exactly what happened. I was going to complain to the chief-of-staff about the battery opening fire.
(v) They are making you plough water. They allow you pens and paper to keep you quiet. How can you possibly write when you know what's the purpose.
2. "In the Sea Bond shows the ability of human beings to survive the worst, to retain their optimism and not to brought down by the lunacy and injustice of the world they live in". Discuss with close reference to the text.
3. "The daemon of Hedda is that she wants to influence another human being, but once that has happened she despises him". Do you agree? Give arguments to support your answer.
4. Is Beckett's Waiting for Godot relevant for us today?
5. "The Cherry Orchard is a tragedy despite the fact that Chekhov described it as a comedy". How far would you agree?
6. "Brechet's Galileo Galili is not only a hymn to reason but one that centres specifically on the need to be sceptical, to doubt". Discuss.
7. Do you think that Bond is indebted to Brecht for his concept of theatre? Give arguments in support of your answer.
3. YEAR 2006
Attempt FOUR questions in all. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following passages.
(i) Perhaps not. We're into the spring tides now. He'll be washed up where the coast turns in. (Points) You see? People are cruel and boring and obsessed.
(ii) (nervously, walking across the room) Sometimes a mood like that hits me. And I can't stop myself. (Throws herself down in the armchair by the stove.) Oh, I don't know how to explain it.
(iii) Here's a fine rug ..... here you are, ladies and gentlemen, a fine rug for sale ..... (she opens it up) who wants to buy?
(iv) We wait we are bored. (He throws up his hand.) No, don't protest. We are bored to death, there is no denying it.
(v) An apple from the tree of knowledge! He's wolfing it down. He is damned for ever, but he has got to wolf it down, the poor glutton.
2. "I left the last sentence of the play unfinished because the play can have no satisfactory solution at that stage," says Edward Bond. What is your opinion about ending the play The Sea?
3. Bring out the dramatic significance of the symbols used in Hedda Gabler.
4. How far do you think Chekhov is successful in presenting the theme of the passing of the old order through the symbol of cherry orchard.
5. Can one identify with Beckett's characters in Waiting for Godot and if so why?
6. Do you think the play Galileo Galili presents a conflict between the authority and free scientific inquiry, both on the institutional level and within Galileo's own character?
7. Write a critical note on the following topics;
(i) Rational Theatre
(ii) Epic Theatre
4. YEAR 2007
Attempt any FOUR questions. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following passages.
(i) I also believe in the wise rate catcher. He can bear to live in the minutes as well as the years, and understands the voice of the thing he is going to kill. Suffering is a universal language and everything that has a voice is human. We sit here and the world changes.
(ii) Why must it be like this? Why can't we get suffering over, done with, quickly! Why can't change .... Finish with all the mess and misery in life!
(iii) You can stand there and say that! No further use for me! Surely I can go on helping you? We'll go on working together, won't we?
(iv) What are we doing here, that is the question. And we are blessed in this, that we happen of known the answer. Yes, in this manner confusion one thing alone is clear. We are waiting for Godot to come .....
(v) What do you want to explain? You are fully in line with the Holy Congregation's decree of 1616. You cannot be faulted.
2. Is Bond justified in calling The Sea a comedy despite the fact that there is-so-much violence in the play?
3. "In an instant ail will vanish and well be alone once more, in the midst of nothingness!" How far do you agree that these lines of the play Waiting for Godot reflect the intellectual climate of Beckett's time?
4. How far would you agree that the tragedy of Hedda is that she has nothing serious to do but at the same time she desperately years, for happiness without every being able to find it?
5. "It is not what the characters say which matters, it is what they are and what they are doing with their lives". How far do you agree with this assessment of the characters in The Cherry Orchard?
6. How far do you think Brecht is successful in applying his theories about drama in Galileo Gallic.
7. Discuss some of the main features of modern drama with special reference to the plays in your syllabus.
5. YEAR 2008
Attempt FOUR questions in all. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following passages.
(i) And Virginia will soon Rave to have a dowry: she's not bright. Then I like buying books about other things besides Physics, and I like a decent meal. Good' meals are when I get mot of my ideas.
(ii) I trust nobody needs reminding that Orchard and estate come under hammer in two weeks' time ..... Two weeks friends. Try to think of it while you dine.
(iii) Is there anything I can do, that's what I ask myself, to cheer them up? I have given them bones, I have talked to them; about this and that, I have explained the twilight, admittedly.
(iv) Then create room. Don't you aspire to be an artist? Think of the miners who spend their lives crawling through darkness so that may have light.
(v) Apparently he put up a very violent resistance. Hit one of the constables on the ear and tore his uniform. He had to accompany them to the police station.
2. How does Beckett transform inaction into dramatic auction in Waiting for Godot?
3. "Hatach, inhabits a world which is illusory as that of the play rehearsed in Mrs. Rafi's room". Elaborate.
4. Is the Cherry Orchard a political play?
5. "Hedda's restlessness and envy arise from her false standards of happiness as well as from her egotism and uselessness". What is your opinion?
6. Is the play Galileo Galilie a tragedy?
7. Trace the development which took place in the art of dramaturgy from Ibsen to Bond.
6. YEAR 2009
Attempt FOUR questions in all. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following passages.
(i) The transcript is inside that globe. Should you think of taking it to Holland, you would of course have to bear the entire responsibility. In that case you would have bought it from someone who had access to the original in the Holy Office.
(ii) How can we begin to live in the present if we don't redeem the past .... come to terms with it? There is only one way. By suffering. By work. By extraordinary effort .... by unceasing toil. Try to understand that, Anya.
(iii) We should ask him for the bone first. Then if he refuses we'll leave him there.
(iv) Vine leaves? No, I didn't see any of them. He made a long, rambling oration in honour of the woman who'd inspired him to write this book. Yes, those were the words he used.
(v) You'll be a dog. You collect for your Save the Animals Fund every year and you never go away till we've given twice as much as we can afford. Now you have the chance to earn some more gratitude from your little friends.
2. Do you think that "Loveborg's despair arises from the fact that he wants to control the world but cannot control himself"?
3. Trace the various stages in Mrs. Rafi's responsibility for the ultimate breakdown of Hatch in The Sea.
4. What is the dramatic significance of the song in Act II of Waiting for Godot?
5. Why has Chekhov's drama been called 'lyrical' and 'internal' as opposed to 'external'? Discuss with reference to his play The Cherry Orchard.
6. "I betrayed my profession. A man who does what I did cannot be tolerated in the ranks of science." Make a critical assessment of Galileo's character in the light of this statement.
7. "Drama from Ibsen to Bond reflects an effort on the part of the playwrights to search for suitable language to convey their experience of life to the audience." Do you agree?
8. YEAR 2010
Attempt FOUR questions in all. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following passages.
(i) He was there this afternoon. He went to demand something he said they had stolen from him. He talked wildly about some child that had disappeared.
(ii) I tell you every day. Every day I say the same thing over and over again. You must let the cherry orchard and the land under building leases for summer cottages, and you must do it now, as quickly as possible, or the auction will be on top of you!
(iii) In my spare time, of which I have plenty, I have gone over my case and considered how it is going to be judged by that world of science of which I no longer count myself a member.
(iv) But we were there together, I could swear to it! Picking grapes for a man called .... (he snaps his fingers) .... can't think of the name of the man, at a place, do you not remember?
(v) Such a night. Thanks heavens I didn't know you were out in it I would have had no sleep.
2. Is Waiting for Godot a meaningful play?
3. How far do you think Edward Bond is successful in applying his theories about drama in The Sea?
4. Discuss some of the dramatic devices Ibsen has used to depict Hedda Gabler's predicament.
5. "Lopakhin is not a merchant in the vulgar sense of the word ... There is no need for him to be the typical merchant. He is a tender-hearted man." Do you think that this statement fully explains Lopakhin's character in The Cherry Orchard?
6. Do you think that Galileo Galili presents a conflict between the whole spirit of the free inquiry and the official ideology? Elaborate your answer with reference to the play.
7. Discuss the main features of drama after the World War II
9. YEAR 2010 (Supplementary)
Attempt FOUR questions in all. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following passages.
(i) These selfish and domineering men, having greedily exploited the fruit of science, found that the cold eye of science had been turned on a primeval but contrived poverty that could clearly be swept away if they were swept away themselves.
(ii) On, nonsense! You're going to have tea first, you little fool! And then --- at ten'o clock --- Eilert Lovborg will be here with vine of leaves in his hair.
(iii) Remark that I might just as well have been in his shoes and he in mine. If chance had not willed otherwise. To each one his due.
(iv) Oh, no, not at all. But there's going to be an enormous bump in my head for all that.
(v) Oh no. You soon spot them behind this counter. You get a fair indication from the way they pay their bill. That shows if they respect our way of life, or they are just out to make trouble by running people into debt.
2. Waiting for Godot shows Beckett's ability to bled derision, humour and comedy with tragedy. His words are simultaneously tragic and comic. How far would you agree?
3. In what sense does The Cherry Orchard present a break with the old Russian theatre?
4. Is there any relationship between the mythical world of Eurydice and the real world of Rose in Bond's play The Sea?
5. Who is responsible for the destruction of Hedda? Fate or Society?
6. What is Galileo's dilemma?
7. Trace the impact of modernism and postmodernism on modern drama from Beckett to Bond.
10. YEAR 2011
Attempt FOUR questions in all. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following passages:
(i) Quite irreproachably, I assure you. In every respect. All the same --- I'm dreadfully frightened something may happen to him.
(ii) I suddenly felt sorry for Mama, I just put my hands on her face and held her, I just couldn't let her go. And afterwards she hugged me, and cried.
(iii) Perhaps I haven't got it right. He wants to mollify me, so that I'll give up the idea of parting with him. No, that's exactly it either.
(iv) Most samples are sent out to deliberately deceive customers. I have no doubt about it, you could add it to the Articles of Religion. Well it's a handsome material. I'll say that. It will look well at part House. I want a hundred and sixty-two yards in three lengths. I'll have it made up at Forebeach.
(v) Why does he make the earth the centre of the universe? So that the See of St. Peter can be the centre of the earth! That's it what it is all about.
2. How does Beckett prevent the audience from being bored by Waiting for Godot?
3. Ibsen's play exhibits a conflict in Hedda between the masculine and the feminine traits which ultimately brings about her destruction. How far do you agree?
4. The Sea in Bond's play 'is the symbol of our strength and resourcefulness, as well as a description of our lives as moral beings'. Discuss.
5. Discuss the main features of the Epic Theatre in the light of Brechet's play Galileo Galili.
6. Discuss the dramatic significance of the sub-plot of The Cherry Orchard.
7. Write a critical note on the following:
(i) The character of Willy in The Sea
(ii) The character of Lyubov in The Cherry Orchard
11. YEAR 2011(Supplementary) 
Attempt FOUR questions in all. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following passages:
(i) Oh, for my sins, I've always spent money like a lunatic. I married a man who only knew how to get into debts --- killed himself drinking champagne --- oh, how he drank! I fell in love with someone else - God, what a misfortune! We had an affair.
(ii) Yes. Good heavens, I always looking forward to it all so much. To seeing you play hostess to a select circle! By Jove! What? Ah, well, for the time being we shall have to make do with each other's company.
(iii) Gentlemen I don't know what came over me. Forget all I said. (more and more his old self) I don't remember exactly what it was, but you may be sure there wasn't a word of truth in it.
(iv) Oh, no. You soon spot them behind this counter. You get a fair indication from the way they pay their bill. That shows if they respect our way of life, or if they're just out to make trouble by ruining people into debt.
(v) A human race with shambles around in a pearly haze of superstition and old saws, too ignorant to develop its own powers, will never be able to develop those powers of nature which you people are revealing to it.
2. How far do you think that the last scene of Bond's play THE SEA is dramatically effective?
3. "I have used Christianity as mythology in the play WAITING FOR GODOT'. What dramatic purpose does Christian mythology serve in the play?
4. "Again and again his characters speak of trivialities at a time when their thoughts are quite clearly engaged on something quite different" Discuss with reference to THE CHERRY ORCHARD.
5. Discuss the dramatic significance of symbols in the play HEDDA GABLER.
6. How far do you think that the issues and concerns raised in Brecht's GALILEO GALILI relevant for us today?
7. Discuss the dramatic significance of the following.
(i) The opening scene of THE SEA.
(ii) The character of Trofimov.
12. YEAR 2012
Attempt FOUR questions in all. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following passages:
(i) Was I asleep? While the others suffered? Or am I asleep at this time? When I wake up tomorrow, or think that I have woken up, what shall I say about today?
(ii) Oh my lovely innocent childhood! Sleeping here is the nursery, looking out into the orchard, --- every morning waking up to happiness. And it is --- the same as it was, nothing's changed.
(iii) Do you find it so incredible that a young girl, given the chance in secret, should want to be allowed a glimpse into a forbidden world of whose existence she is supported to be ignorant?
(iv) Listen, where is the world's weak spot? Here. They know there's no leadership, no authority, no discipline in his town. So it's up to us.
(v) If you have knowledge to sell, you can ask only as much as it earns the purchaser.
2. WAITING FOR GODOT exposes the eternal loneliness, bafflement and ennui suffered by man. Comment.
3. "HEDDA GABBLER's characters anticipates the modern, emancipated woman who invariably places herself in opposition to the traditional maternal role. Elaborate.
4. THE SEA questions the moral and social hypocritical attitudes that dominates our private and public behaviour without suggesting any alternatives. What is the use of such a play?
5. Is the CHERRY ORCHARD a blend of smiles and tears? Why?
6. Life of Galileo by Brecht puts the heroic and the sublime next to the comic and the mundane. Elaborate.
7. Write a critical note on the following.
(i) Tragedy -- from Sophocles to Edward Bond
(ii) Language as theme in twentieth century drama.
13. YEAR 2012 (Supplementary) 
Attempt any FOUR questions including Question No. 1 which is COMPULSORY. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following passages:
(i) Does he not have the right to put down his bags? He certainly have the right. From this we conclude that he keeps on carrying the bags all the time because he likes to do so. This is a good explanation.
(ii) All his narrow minded concern with petty illusion, can't she understand that we are above all that? We must be free of the small, the pointless...
(iii) Yes, it's got the odour of death about it. It reminds me of the flowers one has worn at a ball --- the morning after.
(iv) Don't you aspire to be an artist? Think of the miners who spend their lives crawling through darkness so that you may have light. That also, in its way, is the task of art.
(v) I can visualize my parents sitting round the fire with my sister, eating their curded cheese ... They are badly off, but even their misfortunes imply a certain order. There are so many cycles. There is a regularity about the disasters that befall them ... They have been assured that God's eye is always on them ...
2. WAITING FOR GODOT shows the individual as the product of linguistic forces, a 'tissue of textualities'. Comment.
3. HEDDA GABBLER's doomed enterprise takes on full meaning only if her milieu is completely conveyed in both, its human destiny and limitation. Elaborate.
4. 'If you can't face Hiroshima in the theatre, you'll eventually end up in Hiroshima itself. How does the above remark by Edward Bond state his moral position regarding the role of drama?
5. What are the salient features of a naturalistic play? Can THE CHERRY ORCHARD be considered as a naturalistic play?
6. Life of Galileo by Brecht is a major attempt to dramatize both the life of a great scientist and a crucial episode in the biography of science. Elaborate.
7. Write a critical note on the following:
(i) The use of Play-within-play in THE SEA
(ii) Ibsen as a modern dramatist.
14. YEAR 2013
Attempt FOUR questions in all. Question No. 1 is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Explain any THREE of the following with reference to the context.
(i) Recognize! What is there in which one should recognize? All my wretched life I have crawled in mud! And you think it proper to talk to me about scenery? Look at this heap of rubbish! I have never gone away from it.
(ii) There is no turning back ... is it over ... finished and done worth long ago. Stop worrying. And stop deceiving yourself ... for once in your life look at the truth and face it.
(iii) He'll be here. I can see him. With a crown if vine leaves in his hair. Burning and unashamed.
(iv) I believe the Universe lives. It teems with life. Men take themselves to be very strong and cunning. But who can kill space and time or dust?
(v) I like to think it all started with ships. From times immemorial ships had hugged the shores, but suddenly they abandoned the shores and sailed out the oceans.
2. Bring out the significance of the title of WAITING FOR GODOT.
3. Can Hedda be regarded as the precursors of the 20th century emancipated woman? Give your arguments.
4. Edward Bond's THE SEA is overshadowed by Marxist concern. Do you agree?
5. In THE CHERRY ORCHARD, we watch the dreams of childhood dying and ambitions of middle age stirring into action. Comment.
6. Can Life of Galileo be read as anti-religions play?
7. Discuss Ibsen's contribution to the development of modern drama.
15. YEAR 2014
Attempt any FOUR questions including question No. 1 which is COMPULSORY. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following passages:
(i) Was I asleep? While the others suffered? Or am I asleep at this time? When I wake up tomorrow, or think that I have woken up, shall I say about today?
(ii) Oh my lovely innocent childhood! Sleeping here in the nursery, looking out into the orchard, ... every morning waking up to happiness. And it is ... the same as it was, nothing's changed.
(iii) Do you find it so incredible that a young girl, given the chance in secret, should want to be allowed a glimpse into a forbidden world of whose existence she is supposed to be ignorant?
(iv) Listen, where is the world's week spot? Here. They know there's no leadership, no authority, no discipline in its town. So its up to us.
(v) If you have knowledge to sell, you can ask only as much as it earns the purchaser.
2. Waiting for Godot voices the infinite hope and despair of man about the future of humanity. Do you agree?
3. What picture of the social and moral norms of the society that surrounds Hedda Gabler, can be found in Ibsen's play?
4. Why does Bond refuse to suggest a solution to the problems of the society? What are the recommendations made in The Sea regarding the responsibility of the individual in the search of the truth?
5. How does the comic element in The Cherry Orchard enhance the tragic impact of the play?
6. The play by Brecht deliberately moves away from being a 'slice of life' by using distancing techniques. Discuss the effectiveness of these techniques.
7. Write a critical note on the following:
(i) Tragedy -- from Sophocles to Edward Bond
(ii) Language as theme in twentieth century drama
16. YEAR 2015
Attempt any FOUR questions. Question No. 1 is COMPULSORY. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following extracts:
(i) Does he not have the right to put down his bags? He certainly have the right. From this we conclude that he keeps on carrying the bags all the time because he likes to do so. This is a good explanation.
(ii) All this narrow minded concern with petty illusion. can't she understand that we are above all that? We must be free of the small, the pointless.
(iii) Yes, it's got the odour of death about it. It reminds me of the followers one has worn at a ball the morning after.
(iv) Don't you aspire to be an artist? Think of the miners who spend their lives crawling through darkness so that you may have light. That also, in its way. is the task of art.
(v) I can visualize my parents sitting around the fire with my sister, eating their curded cheese. They are badly off, but even their misfortunes imply a certain order. There are so many cycles. There is regularity about the disasters that befall them. They have been assured that God's eye is always on them ....
2. "The Cherry Orchard" can be read as a drama tracing the human journey from childhood fantasy to the adult consciousness of harsh reality. Elaborate.
3. Does Ibsen's play depict the failure of artistic impulse in a world dominated by socio economic concerns? How do you interpret the death of Lovcborg in "Hedda Gabble"?
4. Discuss "Waiting for Godot" as representative of 20th century issues of anxiety and despair.
5. What does Bond gain by inserting the classical tragedy of Orpheus within the tragedy of modern world in "The Sea"?
6. Is Galileo a tragic protagonist?
7. Write a critical note on the following.
(i) Socio Economic Issues in 20th Century Drama
(ii) Absurdism as a Modern Concern

PAPER III - NOVEL

1. YEAR 2004
Attempt FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. Summaries and plot analysis of the prescribed texts are not allowed. 
1. What is the importance of Congo itself-country and climate in the novel: Heart of Darkness?
2. Heart of Darkness has been accused of being racist, anti African. Is this how you see it?
3. Discuss the use of epiphany in the development of the character of Stephen Dedalus in Joyce's the portrait of an artiste as a young man.
4. Discuss the importance of Stephen Dedalus's theory of aesthetics in the context of the novel The Portrait of an Artiste as a Young Man.
5. Is To the Lighthouse principally James Ramsay's story?
6. Does it seem to you a just criticism that in To the Lighthouse the usual concerns of a novel -- character and plot -- have been subordinated to symbols and ideas?
7. How would you respond to the criticism that Achebe's narrative in the novel Things Fall Apart is too simple to be truly tragic?
8. Okonokwo brings about his own downfall. Do you agree with this statement? Support with close reference to the novel Things Fall Apart.
9. 'When we finish the book Twilight in Delhi, the centre of the tragic sense is not only Delhi, but life itself'. Discuss.
10. Why do you think Ahmed Ali gave his novel this title Twilight in Delhi?
2. YEAR 2005
Attempt FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. Summaries or plot analysis of the TEXT NOT ALLOWED.
1. "Marlow is illuminated in the Heart of Darkness". Discuss with reference to Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad.
2. Discuss the various conflicts expounded by Achebe in Things Fall Apart.
3. "To live, to err, to fall, to triumph, to re-create life out of life". Discuss the portrait of Stephen Dedalus in the light of this statement. (A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man)
4. Virginia Woolf wanted to capture, in words, the nature of human consciousness what it actually feels like to be alive". Discuss with reference To the Lighthouse.
5. What are the major themes explored by Ahmed Ali in the novel "Twilight in Delhi"?
6. Explain the meanings of the trip to the Lighthouse and completion of Lily Briscoe's picture.
7. What is symbolism? How has Conrad made use of this technique in Heart of Darkness?
3. YEAR 2006
Attempt FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Conrad's Heart of Darkness "explores man's nature; his capacity for evil; the necessity for restraint; the effect of physical darkness and isolation on a civilized soul". Examine Kurtz's character in the light of this statement.
2. Discuss in detail the title "Things Fall Apart", the novel by Chinua Achebe.
3. Critically examine the aesthetic theory of Stephen Dedalus as expounded by James Joyce in his novel "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man".
4. Discuss the character of Lily Brisco as Virginia Woolf's version of art.
5. Explain the significance of the title "Twilight in Delhi", the novel by Ahmed Ali.
6. Compare and contrast the theme of 'Heart of Darkness' by Joseph Conrad with that of 'Things Fall Apart' by Chinua Achebe.
7. Discuss the use of symbolism in the modern novels (the novels in the prescribed course).
4. YEAR 2007
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. "Material Interests" corrupt human relations. Discuss the theme of Hear of Darkness in the light of this statement.
2. Critically examine Stephen's development as an artist. (A Portrait of the Artist As a Young Man).
3. Write critical analysis of the three parts of To the Lighthouse by Virginia Woolf.
4. Describe the tragic consequences of the incursion of the white man and his culture into African Traditional society. (Things Fall Apart)
5. Ahmed Ali in "Twilight in Delhi" brings history alive, depicting most movingly the decay of a whole way of life and culture. Discuss.
6. Critically evaluate the role of female characters in Things Fall Apart.
7. Modern Novel reflects the complexity of modern life. Discuss. (Refer to novels prescribed in your course).
5. YEAR 2008
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1."Displaying masterful technical dexterity, Conrad makes us fully aware of the deep mystery of truth in his extraordinary exploration of human savagery and despair". Discuss Heart of Darkness in the light of this statement.
2. Critically examine the aesthetic theory of Stephen Dedalus as expounded by James Joyce in his novel A Portrait As A Young Man.
3. Virginia Woolf was attempting a new type of fiction. It was to have "no plot, no comedy, no tragedy, no love interest or catastrophe in the accepted style". Discuss To the Lighthouse.
4. "The white man is very clever ... He has put a knife on the things that held us together and we have fallen apart". Discuss this statement of Obierika in Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe.
5. "My purpose in writing the novel was to depict a phase of our national life and the decay of a whole culture, a particular mode of thought and living". Write critical analysis of Twilight in Delhi according to this statement by its author.
6. Compare and contrast the theme of Heart of Darkness to that of Things Fall Apart.
7. What are the salient features of modern English novel?
6. YEAR 2009
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. "A man's confrontation with the dark self is both dangerous and enlightening".
2. "Stephen is a rebel". Do you agree on not? Give reasons.
3. How does Virginia Woolf portray "life: in her novel "To the Lighthouse"?
4."In Things Fall Apart, Achebe opens a casement on Umuofia, revealing to us the compelling tragedy of Okonkwo, a hero, we cannot claim to like, but do not fail to admire". Discuss.
5. "Ahmed Ali's characters have a symbolic pattern in Twilight in Delhi". Discuss.
6. Write a comprehensive note on the structure of To the Lighthouse.
7. Discuss various trends in modern English novel.
7. YEAR 2009 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. "Conrad's heroes are in struggle with the dark forces of nature and at war with their own soul". In the light of this statement discuss Conrad's art of characterization in The Heart of Darkness.
2. Critically examine Joyce's use of the device of epiphany in his novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young man.
3. Discuss Virginia Woolf's theory of the novel. How has she made use of it in TO THE LIGHTHOUSE?
4. Discuss the role of women in THINGS FALL APART from feminine point of view.
5. How does Ahmed Ali portray the city of Delhi and its people in TWILIGHT IN DELHI?
6. Write a comprehensive note on the structure of TO THE LIGHTHOUSE.
7. Discuss the art of characterization in modern English novel.
8. YEAR 2010
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Write a critical note on the role and character of Marlow in HEART OF DARKNESS.
2. Discuss the use of epiphany in the development of Stephen Dedalus in The Portrait of the Artist As a Young Man.
3. "In TO THE LIGHTHOUSE, Virginia Woolf found a subject that enabled her to do full justice to her technique". Discuss.
4. Discuss THINGS FALL APART as a post-colonial novel.
5. "Ahmed Ali's characters are caught in a restless, changing world that has lost its values." Discuss.
6. "In HEART OF DARKNESS, Conrad portrays the evils of 19th century colonialism in Africa with extraordinary vividness". Discuss.
7. What are the salient features of modern novel?
9. YEAR 2010 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Discuss the symbolic import of the character in HEART OF DARKNESS.
2. "The artist is at once a member of his society, a rebel, a martyr and the possible saviour". How does this definition apply to Stephen Dedalus in A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST AS A YOUNG MAN?
3. 'Mrs. Ramsay brings people together, yet is an isolated person'. Discuss the character and role of Mrs. Ramsay in the light of this comment.
4. Illustrate the significance of the title of the novel THINGS FALL APART.
5. 'TWILIGHT IN DELHI is a vivid picture of Indian combined family life'. Discuss.
6. 'Virginia Woolf adopted a revolutionary technique for the expression of her vision of life and human nature'. Discuss.
7. 'Man's inhumanity to man is his greatest crime'. Discuss the theme of HEART OF DARKNESS in the light of this comment.
10. YEAR 2011
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. Summaries and plot analysis of the prescribed texts no allowed. 
1. Discuss the symbolic representation of Evil in the HEART OF DARKNESS.
2. Write a note on Conrad's imagery in the HEART OF DARKNESS.
3. What purpose does the use of myth serve in PORTRAIT OF AN ARTIST?
4. Does the concept of Epiphany - the sudden spiritual manifestation, help us understand "The Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man" better?
5. "Jazz" is a novel that focuses on human relationships and their dynamics rather than the concept of slavery. Discuss this observation.
6. What do you think are the main themes in "Things Fall Apart"?
7. How convincingly does Ahmad Ali portray the feudal middle class of U.P. in the novel "Twilight in Delhi"?
11. YEAR 2011 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1.Write a critical note on the role and character of either Marlow or Kurtz in HEART OF DARKNESS.
2. Write a note on the significance of the title of the novel A PORTRAIT OF AN ARTIST AS A YOUNG MAN and how does it relate to the various stages of the artistic and intellectual group of the hero Stephen Dedalus.
3. TO THE LIGHTHOUSE is a novel that portrays an Oedipal struggle between James and MR Ramsay --- Discuss with close reference to the text.
4. Bring out the communal aspects and the family relationships in THINGS FALL APART.
5. Does the TWILIGHT IN DELHI celebrate or challenge the patriarchal structure of the society it portrays. 6. What are the main themes that Conrads brings out in the HEART OF DARKNESS?
7. Do you think that THINGS FALL APART is the tragedy of a simple individual or the whole community?
12. YEAR 2012
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. Summaries and plot analysis should be avoided. 
1. HEART OF DARKNESS is a "modern blend of comic absurdity, tragedy, and satire". Comment. (Heart of Darkness: J. Conrad)
2. What means does Conrad employ to develop the relationship between the title:"The Heart" and its theme?
3. What are the distinctive qualities of Virginia Woolf as a novelist? Do not confine your answer to "To the Lighthouse" only. (To the Lighthouse)
4. What is Stephen Dedalus's theory of aesthetics? What is its importance in the development of the novel? (Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man: J. Joyce)
5. Would you consider Achebe's method of narration too simple to be tragic? (Things Fall Apart: Chinua Achebe)
6. "Okonkwo brings about his own downfall". Discuss. (Things Fall Apart)
7. What major themes are treated in Ahmad Ali's novel, "Twilight in Delhi"?
13. YEAR 2012 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Trace Stephen Dedalus's progress as an artist. (A Portrait of An Artist as a Young Man)
2. How does Achebe present the Ibo social life, and the downfall of Okonkwo? (Things Fall Apart)
3. "My purpose in writing the novel was to depict a phase of our national life and the decay of a whole culture, a particular mode of thought and living" --- Ahmad Ali. Discuss this statement with reference to his novel, "Twilight in Delhi".
4. "Displaying masterful dexterity, Conrad makes us fully aware of the deep mystery of truth in his extraordinary explanation of human savagery and despair". Discuss. (Heart of Darkness: Joseph Conrad)
5. What are the major symbols in the HEART OF DARKNESS and what purpose do these serve? (Heart of Darkness: Conrad)
6. What is meant by stream of consciousness? How does Virginia Woolf use this surreal technique to depict the Ramsay family. (To the Lighthouse: Virginia Woolf)
7. "Achebe is a novelist who makes you laugh --- and then catch your breath in horror. Comment on the Art of Achebe as a novelist.
14. YEAR 2013
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. Summaries and plot analysis of the prescribed texts not allowed. 
1. What happens to Marlow after Kurtz's death? (Heart of Darkness).
2. Consider HEART OF DARKNESS as a political allegory.
3. Why does Virginia Woolf use stream of consciousness in this novel? How effective is it? What sort of "feel" do you get from the characters? The novelist?
4. Why do you think Stephen means when he says he will "forge ... the uncreated conscience of my race?" (A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man)
5. Why does Achebe choose to bring in the European colonial presence only in the last third of the novel? (Things Fall Apart)
6. Is Okonkwo destined for tragedy or die his choices lead him to his tragic end? (Things Fall Apart)
7. The novel TWILIGHT IN DELHI does not remain the story of Delhi alone, but is simultaneously the story of the life of mankind.
15. YEAR 2014
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Is Chiny Achebe right? --- is Heart of Darkness racist? Does the book present a simple and degrading view of the native Africans?
2. What are some symbols in Heart of Darkness? How do they relate to the plot and characters?
3. To the Lighthouse is one of Woolf's most successful and accessible experiments in the modernist mode, including stream-of-consciousness. Illustrate citing examples from the text of the novel.
4. What is the important about the title? Is there a reference in the novel that explains the title? (A Portrait of the Artist As a Young Man by James Joyce)
5. What is the overall meaning of the theme - what point is the author trying to make about mankind, society etc. In the Things Fall Apart?
6. What is chi? Explain the importance of chi in shaping Okonkwo's destiny.
7. About Twilight in Delhi Mohammad Hasan Askari says, "I cannot recall any novel or short story in Urdu where nature has thus come to life, or in which nature has played such a role in making the novel so meaningful."
16. YEAR 2015
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Conrad uses the technique of impressionism in "Heart of Darkness". Exemplify.
2, "Heart of Darkness" is about the horrors of western civilization. Comment.
3. What is the nature of relationship between Mrs. Ramsay and Lily Briscoe in "To the Lighthouse"?
4. "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man" is one of the earlier examples in English literature of a novel that makes extensive use of stream of consciousness.
5. Why did Achebe choose to take the title of his novel "Things Fall Apart", from William Butler Yeats' poem "The Second Coming"?
6. What is the role of women in "Things Fall Apart"?
7. The moralizing of the defeated is a powerful emotional sachem in "Twilight in Delhi". Comment.

PAPER IV - LITERARY CRITICISM

1. YEAR 2004
Attempt any FOUR questions including questions No. 5 which is COMPULSORY. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Describe Aristotle's view on Ideal Tragic Hero. Or
Critically examine Aristotle's concept of Catharsis.
2. Critically assess Raymond William's essay on "Tragedy and Contemporary Idea". Or
Explain in detail what Raymond William means by the "Rejection of Tragedy".
3. Where does the meaning lie, in the Text, reader, writer or the structure? Explain in the light of Catherine Belsey's "Critical Practice". Or
Discuss Belsey's arguments in favour of structural criticism.
4. What relationship does Catherine Belsey establish between criticism and commonsense? Or
On what grounds in tradition linked to tragedy? Discuss in the light of Raymond William's "Modern Tragedy".
5. Critically appreciate any ONE of the following:
(a) Behold her, single in the field,
Yon solitary Highland lass!
Reaping and singing by herself;
Stop her, or gently pass!
Alone she cuts and binds the grain
And sings a melancholy strain;
O Listen! For the vale profound
Is overflowing with sound
No nightingale did ever chant
More welcome notes to weary bands
Of travellers in some shady haunt,
Among Arabian sands.
(b) When we two parted
In silence and tears,
Half broken hearted,
To sever for years,
Pale grew they cheeks and cold
Colder thy kiss;
Truly that hour foretold
Sorrow to this!
2. YEAR 2005
Attempt FOUR questions including Question No. 5 which is COMPULSORY. All questions carry EQUAL marks. 
1. Critically evaluate Aristotle's concept of imitation. OR
Discuss Aristotle's concept of Ideal Tragic Hero.
2. Elucidate Raymond William's views on 'Rejection of Tragedy'. OR
Critically access Raymond William's concept of 'Tragedy and Tradition'.
3. Discuss deconstruction method in detail. How has it changed the concept Modern Criticism? (critical practice) OR
Elucidate the relationship between criticism and commonsense in the light of Catherine Belsey's views.
4. Discuss Raymond Williams as a critic. OR
Discuss expressive realism and new criticism and also differentiate them from each other.
5. Critically appreciate any ONE of the following:
(i) In room, darker than the night, I lay,
Thinking about thine mysterious universe
Never reaching the conclusion, I pray,
I would not crouch in the lap of death if I could converse.
Forests deep and wild, people merry and in gloom
Rivers flowing and oceans dry, autumn leaves and roses bloom.
Lonely clouds wandering in the light of serene moon
Never reaching a reason, an insane will die soon.
(ii) The world is too much with us; late and soon,
Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers;
Little we see in Nature that is ours;
We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon!
This sea that bears her bosom to the moon;
The winds that will be howling at all hours,
And are up-gathered now like sleeping Flowers;
For this, for everything, we are out of tune.
It moves us not --- Great God! I would rather be
A pagan suckled in a creed outworn;
So might I, standing on this pleasant lea,
Have glimpses that would make me less forlorn;
Have sight of proteus rising from the sea;
Or hear old triton blow his wreathed horn.
3. YEAR 2006
Attempt FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. The constituent elements of tragedy work together to define first its complication and then the denouement. Explain with reference to Aristotle's Poetics. OR
The art of tragedy aims itself at the audience. Discuss with reference to Aristotle's Poetics.
2. Explain Raymond Williams, reading of 18th and 19th century tragic theory. OR
In Bertoit Brecht the rejection of tragedy has many motives and takes many forms. Explain.
3. What are some of the assumptions of classic Realism that New Criticism attempts to challenge? OR
How can meaning be constructed by reproducing what is familiar?
4. 'You cannot value him (artist) alone, you must set him, for contrast and comparison, among the dead'? Discuss with reference to T.S. Eliot's Tradition and Individual Talent. OR
'Difference between art and event is absolute'. Explain with reference to T.S. Eliot's essay Tradition and Individual Talent.
5. The poet is a 'maker'. Justify in the light of Sidney's essay An Apology for Poetry. OR
According to A.G. George, Sidney's essential contribution to criticism lies in his redefinition of poetry in such a manner as to make the moral content of poetry a part of its essential requirement. How far would you agree with A.G. George's reading of An Apology for Poetry?
6. Critically appreciate any ONE of the following:
(i) One day I wrote her name upon the strand,
But came the waves and washed it away;
Again I wrote it, with a second hand,
But came the tide, and made my pains his prey.
'Vain man, 'said she, 'that dost in vain assay
A mortal thing so to immortalize;
For I myself shall like to this decay,
And eke my names be wiped our likewise',
'Not so,' quoth I. 'Let baser things devise
To die in dust, but you shall live by frame;
My verse your virtues rare shall eternise,
And in the heavens with your glorious name.
Where, when as death shall all the world subdue,
Our love shall live, and later life renew'.
(ii) I live in one city
But then it becomes another.
The point where they mesh --
I call it mine.
Dacoits creep from caves
In the banks of the Indus
One of them is displaced.
From Trafalgar Square
He dominated London, his face.
Masked by scarves and sunglasses.
He draws towards him all the conflict
of the metropolis -- his speech
A barrage of grenades, rocket launchers.
He marks time with his digital watch
The pigeons get under his feet.
In the double city the beggar's cry
Travels from one region to the next.
4. YEAR 2007
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. "The first essential" says ARISTOTLE the life and soul, so to speak of tragedy is the plot; character comes second. How far can this statement be defended? OR
The tragic pleasure is that of pity and fear and the poet has to produce it by a work of imitation. Discuss.
2. "From almost the highest estimation of learning" says Sidney it "is fallen to be the laughing stock of children, "what were the views of poetry in his time? OR
Does the writing and appreciation of poetry require a non-rational mode of study? Answer with reference to Sidney's An Apology for Poetry.
3. How does Eliot conceptualize tradition and how can it be acquired? OR
How does a classic realist text address the subject?
4. How does Eliot conceive the contribution made by Milton and Dryden to the literary tradition in his essay: The Metaphysical Poets? OR
How does ideology sharp the subject? Can the subject find his-way out of ideology?
5. How is Brechtian drama a rejection of tragedy? OR
Emphasis on evil is a recurrent concern of tragedy. Discuss with reference to Collians' essay Tragedy and Tradition' and Tradition and Tragedy and contemporary ideas'.
6. Give critical appreciation of ONE of the following:
(i) Prospero's Farewell To His Magic
Our revels now are ended. These our actors,
As I foretold you, were all "spirits and
Are Meltod into air, into thin air
And, like the baseless fabric of this vision,
The cloud --- capp'd towers the gorgeous palaces,
The solemn temples, the great globe itself,
Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve
And, like this insubstantial pageant faded,
Leave, not a rack behind. We are stuff
As dreams are made on, and our little life
Is rounded with a sleep.
(ii) From: Cult of Indecision
I live in that strange land
Between promises made to myself
And broken with liquid precision
Where days roll into night
Nights collide with days
Like marbles in black and white
With a yin --- yang wisdom
That thrives on indecision

Thoughts have begun to stretch
With an elastic ease
Changing shape and form at will
But I'm where I've always been stuck of earth eyeing
The sky
Where there are no answers
Only careless questions
 And woes the size of elephants

My specie is ridden with moles
Who recount to the Almighty all my sins
Some real others crafted and imagined.
5. YEAR 2008
Attempt FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Imitation is crucial to tragic pleasure. Discuss in the light of Aristotle's Poetics.
2. How does Williams trace the career of Brechtian tragedy?
3. What do you understand by a dialectical text? How is Reader Power criticism well suited to the analysis of such texts?
4. What are the three features that describe a classic realist text?
5. How does 'individual talent' relate with the existing literary 'tradition'?
6. How does 'poesy' construct delight out of what is 'horrible', 'cruel' and 'unnatural'?
7. Critically evaluate any ONE of the following:
(i) Out of the wood of thoughts that grows by night
To be cut down by the sharp axe of light,
Out of the night, two cocks together crow,
Cleaving the darkness with a silver blow;
And bright before my eyes twin trumpeters stand,
Heralds of splendour, one at either hand,
Each facing each as in a coat of arms;
The milkers lace their boots up at the farms.
From Cock Crow by Edward Thomas
(ii) My silting hope. My lowlands of the mind.
Heaviness of being. And poetry
Sluggish in doldrums of what happens.
Me waiting until I was nearly fifty
To credit marvels. Like the tree clock of tin cans
The tinkers made. So long for air to brighten,
Time to be dazzled and the heart of lighten.
From Fosterling by Seamus Heaney
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
6. YEAR 2009
Attempt FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Discuss Aristotle's theory of tragedy with reference to any tragedy that you have read. (Aristotle: Poetics)
2. How does Williams trace the rank of the tragic hero from the Classical to the Modern times? (Raymond Williams: Modern Tragedy)
3. In what ways did New Critics change the approach of criticism towards a literary text? (Catherine: Critical Practice)
4. How is a young writer disadvantaged without a sense of tradition? (T.S. Eliot: Tradition and Individual Talent)
5. How does Sydney perceive Plato's stance on poets and poetry? (Philip Sydney: Apology for Poetry)
6. Differentiate between the Dialectical and the Rhetorical text. How does each determine the role of the reader differently? (Catherine Belsey: Critical Practice)
7. Critically evaluate any ONE of the following extracts:
(i) Twelve o' clock
Along the reaches of the street
Held in a lunar synthesis,
Whispering lunar incantations
Dissolve the floors of memory
And all its clear relations,
Its divisions and precisions,
Every street lamp that I pass
Beats like a fatalistic drum,
And through the spaces of the dark
Midnight shakes the memory
As a madman shakes a dead geranium
(T.S. Eliot: Rhapsody on a Windy Night) 
(ii) Walking across the Brooklyn Bridge
Even on a hot afternoon
One sees many joggers.
And there is the view, of course
Looking across the water
I think of those people from Vietnam.
The mothers, the fathers,
What they would'not have given,
What they would still give-
Their blood, their hair, their livers, their kidneys,
Their lunges, their fingers, their thumbs-
To get their children
Past the Statue of Liberty
7. YEAR 2009 (Supplementary)
Attempt FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. What do you understand by action? What is the relative proportion allocated to it in Aristotle's theory of tragedy? (Aristotle: Poetics)
2. In what ways does Brecht reject tragedy? (Raymond Williams: Modern Tragedy)
3. What impact does the hierarchy of discourses in a classic realist text have on the reader? (Catherine Belsey: Critical Practice)
4. 'Art never improves'. How does this consciousness help the poet recognize his place in the literary tradition? (T.S. Eliot: Tradition and Individual Talent)
5. '.....of all sciences is our poet the monarch'. How does Sydney defend this claim? (Philip Sydney: An Apology for Poetry)
6. How does the death of the hero contribute to the world of tragedy? Give your answer with reference to Hegel and Nietzsche. (Raymond Williams: Modern Tragedy)
7. Critically evaluate any ONE of the following extracts:
(i) All these things entered you
As if they were both the door and what came through it.
They marked the spot, marked time and held it open.
A mower parted the bronze sea of water.
Two men with a cross-cut kept it swimming
Into a felled beech backwards and forwards
So they seemed to row the steady earth.
(ii) Let the world I knew become the space
Between the words that I had by heart
And all the other speech that always was
Becoming the language of the country that
I came to in nineteen-fifty-one:
Barley-gelled, a freckled six-year-old,
Overdressed and sick on the plane
When all of England to an Irish child
Was nothing more than what you'd lost and how:
Was the teacher in the London convert who
When I produced "I amn't" in the classroom
Turned and said- "you're not in Ireland now".
8. YEAR 2010
Attempt FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Aristotle's theory of tragedy is governed by a preoccupation with audience response. Discuss.
2. 'Our tragedies and comedies not without cause cried out against observing rules neither of honest civility nor of skillful poetry', says Sidney. Discuss Sidney's statement.
3. T.S. Eliot says you cannot value the poet alone 'you must set him, for contrast and comparison, among the dead.' In the light of this statement explain Eliot's perspective in the essay, Tradition and Individual Talent.
4. Discuss Classical Tragedy with reference to Hegel and Nietzsche. (Williams)
5. 'There is no Criticism without Ideology.' How does Belsey argue this thesis in Critical Practice.
6. Raymond Williams in 'Tragedy and Tradition' and Belsey in Critical Practice urge us to revaluate existing approaches to Criticism. Discuss.
7. Critically evaluate any ONE of the following:
(i) I am not one who much or oft delight
To season of my fireside with personal talk,
Of friends who live within an easy walk,
Or neighbours, daily, weekly in my sight:
And for my chance acquaintance ladies bright,
Sons, mothers, maidens withering on the stalk,
These all wear out of me, like Forms, with chalk
Painted on rich men's floor, for one feast night.
(From Wordsworth's Personal Talk) 
(ii) I say him leap and thwack you with
Inherited expertise. I
Saw you still the pole and work your
Son to the ground. A dying art
Bridged two generations. You thought.
Now we come for formalities
But you talk of poetry and how
Meaningful some verses become
When the young die and old men live.
(Athar Tahir - Subtraction II)
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
9. YEAR 2010 (Supplementary)
Attempt FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Aristotle's theory of Tragedy is valid for his time only. Discuss.
2. How does the poet compare with the philosopher and the historian? (Sidney)
3. What is the value of originality in the poet's work? Answer with reference to your reading of T.S. Eliot's essay Tradition and Individual Talent.
4. What do you understand by secularization of tragedy? Explain with reference to the shift in emphasis in Tragedy from Classical to Modern times. (Williams)
5. Though organizes itself in terms of the categories of the symbolic order. Discuss. (Belsey)
6. Draw closely on T.S. Eliot's Tradition and Individual Talent and Sydney's An Apology for Poetry and explain the qualities of a good poet.
7. Critically evaluate any ONE of the following:
(i) For thou hast sought
The truth in solitude, and thou art one
The most intense of Nature's worshipers,
In many things my brother, chiefly here
In this my deep devotion. Fare thee well:
Health and the quiet of a healthful mind:
Attend thee, seeking oft the haunts of men ---
But yet more often living with thyself,
And for thyself --- so haply shall thy days
Be many, and a blessing to mankind.
(Wordsworth) 
(ii) Why blame the bulbul?
Rather the sound of the land itself,
A night-jar on a rusty string
Or a train whistle going far
In the night, the steam off.
Strange that there's only a road
By the woodland house,
And the infrequent packed car
Intrudes in here not
By a horn but headlights.
A crescent moon hangs over the drapes
Of light music --- from my side of the bed
As my hands exchange the silken sheet
For you, I know what it is to be distracted.
10. YEAR 2011
Attempt any FOUR questions including Question No. 5 which is COMPULSORY. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Aristotle's discussion on Tragedy is determined by his conception of human nature and social relations. Discuss.
2. What is William's thesis in Tragedy and Tradition, and how does it determine the structure of the essay?
3. Critical Practice is produced with a bias in favour of the interrogative text. Would you agree? Give reasons for your answer.
4. What risks could 'Individual Talent' run in its disregard of tradition?
5. Who is the assumed audience of Sidney's An Apology for Poetry? Justify your answer with close reference to the text.
6. Explain the radical position of 'New Criticism' in its time and say how it fails to break free from 'Expressive Realism'.
7. Critically evaluate any ONE of the following:
(i) What is Freedom? --- Ye can tell
That which Slavery is too well,
For its very name has grown
To an echo of your own.

'Tis to work, and have such pay
As just keeps life from day to day
In you limbs, as in a cell,
For the tyrants' use to dwell

So ye for them are made
Loom and plough, and sword and spade
With or without your own will bent
To their defense and nourishment.
(From: The Mask of Anarchy by Shelly) 
(ii) They're lying; lying all of them:
He never loved his shadow,
And tried to wring its neck.
Not love but murder on his mind,
He grappled with the other man
Inside the lucid stream

Only the surface broke,
Unblinking eyes
Came swimming back in view.
At last he knew
He never would
Destroy the other self
And knowing made him shrink
He shrank into a yellow --- bellied flower
(Narcissus by Mervyn Morris)
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
11. YEAR 2011 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions including Question No. 5 which is COMPULSORY. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. In what ways does The Poetics by down the principles of criticism in terms of analysis and categorization?
2. How does the treatment of the tragic hero change from classical to modern times?
3. What do you understand of 'Deconstruction' from Belsey's Critical Practice?
4. How does 'Individual Talent' relate with 'Tradition'?
5. Explain the significance of the title of Sidney's text: An Apology for Poetry.
6. Williams' essay 'Tragedy and Tradition' assumes as 'informed reader'. Discuss.
7. Critically evaluate any ONE of the following:
(i) There be none of Beauty's daughters
With a magic like thee;
And like music on the waters
Is thy sweet voice to me;
When, as if its sound were causing
The Charmed Ocean's pausing,
The waves be still and gleaning,
And the lulled winds seen dreaming:
And the Midnight Moon is weaving
Her bright chain o'er the deep;
Whose breast is gently heaving,
As an infant's sleep:
So the spirit bows before thee,
To listen and adore thee;
With a full but soft emotion,
Like the swell of summer's ocean
(Stanzas for Music by Byron) 
(ii) From the centre
From the nothing
Of not seen
Of not heard,
There comes
A shifting
A stirring
And a creeping forward
There comes
A standing
A springing
To an outer circles,
There comes
An intake
Of breath
Tihe Mauriora!
(From: Potiki by Patricia Grace)
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
12. YEAR 2012
Attempt FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. "Poetry is something more philosophic and of graver importance than history, since its statements are of the nature of universals". Estimate the relative importance of poetry and philosophy in the light of the above statement.
2. How does modern tragedy encounter the issues of order and accident?
3. Sum up the contribution of Roland Barthes and Jacque Lacan to the development of modern critical trends.
4. Why does T.S. Eliot use the analogy of the catalyst for explaining the role of the poetic mind in the act of creation? How appropriate is this comparison in your own view?
5. Does Philip Sidney present a plausible critical picture of the contemporary British theatre? What are his chief observations in this regard?
6. "By a change of dramatic view point, we have to look not only at the isolated experience of the martyr, but at the social process of his martyrdom". How does the statement point out the departure of Brecht from the classical notion of tragic hero and tragic experience?
7. Critically examine any ONE of the following:
"MISERRUMUS,' and neither name nor date,
Prayer, text, or symbol, graven upon the stone,
Nought but that word assigned to the unknown,
That solitary word-to-separate
From all, and cast a cloud around the fate
Of him who lies beneath. Most wretched one,
'Who' chose his epitaph?--- Himself alone
Could thus have dared the grave to agitate,
And claim, among the dead, this awful crown;
"Nor doubt that He marked also for his own
Close to these cloistral steps a burial place,
The every foot might fall with heavier tread,
Trampling upon his vileness. Stranger, pass
Softly! To save the contrite, Jesus bled
(William Wordsworth) 
(ii) BRIGHT star! Would I were steadfast as thou art ---
Not in love splendour hung aloft the night,
And watching, with eternal lids apart,
Like Nature's patient sleepless Eremite,
The moving waters at their priest-like task
Of pure ablution round earth's human shores,
Or gazing on the new soft fallen mask
Of snow upon the mountains and the moors ---
No --- yet still steadfast, still unchangeable,
To feel for ever its soft fall and swell,
Awake for ever in a sweet unrest,
Still, still to hear her tender-taken breath,
And so live ever --- or else swoon to death.
13. YEAR 2012 (Supplementary)
Attempt FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. "Aristotle's statement about the end of tragedy --- purgation or catharsis --- has been so endlessly misunderstood, so uncritically assumed to be true". Discuss.
2. The Aristotelian concept of tragedy requires considerable modifications in the light of later developments in the field of tragedy. What are Raymond Williams' chief observations in this regard?
3. Critical Practice is produced with a bias in favour of the interrogative text. Would you agree?
4. What relationship, according to T.S. Eliot, must exist between tradition and individual poetic talent?
5. Does Philip Sydney  support the concept of the imitative nature of poetry in An Apology of Poetry? How?
6. What does the term 'split subject' imply? How does 20th century critically deal with the phenomenon?
7. Critically examine any ONE of the following:
(i) A pinup of Rita Hay worth way taped
To touch the bomb that fell on Hiroshima
The Avant-garde makes me weep with boredom,
Horses are wishes, especially dark ones.
That's why twitches and fences.
That's why switches and spurs.
That's why the idiom of betrayal
They forgive us.
Their wind-swayed manes and tails
Their eyes,
Affront the winter-scrubbed prairie
With gentleness.
They live in both worlds and forgive us.
I'll give you a hint: the wind in fits and stars.
Like schoolchildren when the teacher walks in,
The aspens jostles for their places
And fall still
A delirium of ridges breaks in a blue streak;
A confusion of means
Saved from annihilation
By catastrophe.
A horse gallops up to the gate and stops.
The rider dismounts,
Do I know him?
(James Galvin) 
(ii) Epitaph
The first time I died, I walked my ways;
I followed the file of limping days.
I held me tall, with my head flung up,
But I dared not look on the moon's cup.
I dared not look on the sweet rain,
And between my ribs was a gleaming pain.
The next time I died, they laid me deep,
They spoke worn words to my hallow sleep.
They tossed me petals, they wreathed me fern,
They weighted me down with a marble urn.
And I lie here warm, and I lie there dry.
And I watch worms slip by, slip by.
14. YEAR 2013
Attempt FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Discuss Aristotle's concept of a tragic hero in the light of his book Poetics.
2. Sidney's Apology for Poetry presents a brilliant analysis of the contemporary dramatic practice. Explain.
3. "It is not the, the greatness the intensity of emotions, the components, but the intensity of the artistic process, the pressure, so to speak, under which the fusion takes place, that counts." Explain this statement in the light of Eliot's essay "Tradition and the Individual Talent".
4. What are the limitations of Experience Realist critical approach to Literature?
5. What are Raymond Williams' views regarding culture and tragedy? Discuss in detail.
6. Criticism is an effort "to see things as they are, without partiality, without obtrusion of personal liking of disliking." What is your opinion?
7. Critically examine any ONE of the following:
(i) Full fathom five my father lies,
Of his bones are coral made:
Those were pearls that were his eyes;
Nothing of him that doth fade
But doth suffer a sea-change
Sea nymphs hourly ring his knell;
Burthen: Ding, Dong.
Hark, now I hear them --- ding-dong bell.
(Shakespeare) 
(ii) A poor bird freely roaming in the jungle
He might not have been affected by these hindrance
On whose decoration the nature is decorated
His world might be innocent".
15. YEAR 2014
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Discuss at length the criterion for a tragic hero laid down by Aristotle in Poetics.
2. Sidney's Apology for Poetry is a work which has rightly been valued as one of the outstanding performances in English Criticism and one which inaugurated a new phase in the history of criticism. What is your opinion? Explain with arguments.
3. "It is not the, the greatness the intensity of emotions, the components, but the intensity of the artistic process, the pressure, so to speak, under which the fusion takes place, that counts." Explain this statement in the light of Eliot's essay "Tradition and the Individual Talent".
4. What is meant by the term New Criticism? Does Belsey oppose it or support it? Discuss.
5. Why in Raymond William's view Greek tragedy is unique and cannot be reproduced in modern times? Discuss with reference to Modern Tragedy.
6. "The ultimate objective of Criticism is neither to accept nor to reject but to take issue & proceed." What is your opinion?
7. Critically examine any ONE of the following:
(i) Loveliest of trees, the cherry now
Is hung with bloom along the bough
And stands about the woodland ride
Wearing white for Easter tide.
Now, of my three score years and ten
Twenty will not come again,
And take from seventy Springs a score,
It only leaves me fifty more,
And since to look at things in bloom
Fifty springs are little room
About the woodland I will go
To see the cherry hung with snow. (A.E. Houseman)
(ii) The silver swan, who living had not note,
When death approached, unlocked her silent throat,
Leaning her breast against the ready shore,
Thus sung her first and last, and sung no more:
Farewell all joys! O death, come close mine eyes;
More geese than swans now love, more fools than wise. (Anonymous)
16. YEAR 2015
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Critically analyze Aristotle's concept of a tragic hero.
2. How far would you agree that in moral doctrine also, the poet surpasses the historian as well as the philosopher? Discuss in the light of Sidney's "An Apology for Poetry".
3. Is it justified to call Eliot's essay "Tradition and the Individual Talent" a manifesto of Eliot's criticism?
4. What according to Raymond Williams are the distinctive features of Secular tragedy?
5. What is structural criticism? What position does Belsey take on structuralist criticism?
6. What are the main qualities of a good critic? Refer to at least two of the critics in your course to elaborate you answer.
7. Critically examine any ONE of the following poems.
(i) I met a traveler from an antique land
Who said: Two vast and trunkless legs of stone,
Stand in the desert ... near them, on the sand
Half sunk a shattered visage lies, whose frown,
And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command,
Tell that its sculptor well those passions read
Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things,
The hand that mocked them, and the heart that fed:
And on the pedestal those words appear;
'My name is Ozymandias, king of kings:
Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!'
Nothing beside remains. Round the decay
Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare
The lone and level sand stretch far away.
(P.B. Shelley)
(ii) I have finished my combat with the sun,
And my body, the old animal, Knows nothing more.
The power seasons bred and killed,
And where themselves the genii
Of their own ends.
Oh, but the very self of the storm
Of sun and slaves, breeding and death,
The old animal.
(Wallace Stevens)

PAPER V - OPTIONAL

(A) SHORT STORIES

1. YEAR 2004
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. The modern writers focus on the oddities of human behaviour. Elaborate by giving examples from short stories in your syllabus.
2. Which features of South Africa are reflected in N. Gardiner's Once Upon a Time? Elaborate.
3. Keeping Amy Tan's "The Voice from the Wall" in mind say how it finds its place in modern fiction?
4. Give a critical analysis of the main characters of the Judgment by Kafka.
5. Comment on the element of retrospective autobiography in Sara Suleri's "The Property of a Woman".
6. Give an elaborate account of "A Sun Rise on the Veld" by Doris Lessing.
7. Write a short essay on the essential elements of the short story. How does it differ from the novel?
2. YEAR 2005
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry EQUAL marks. 
1. The short story writer usually emphasizes some anecdote that excites and surprises the reader. Discuss, keeping in mind more short stories you have read in your course.
2. Write a critical analysis of "A Clean Well Lighted Space" by E. Hemingway.
3. Discuss 'The Man Who Lived in a Shell' by Chekov and 'The Voice' by V.S. Pritchett.
4. Joyce's, 'The Dead' defies the conventional form of the short story regarding its characterization and stylistic technique.
5. Trace the ambivalent relationship between father and son in F. Kafka's 'The Judgement'.
6. Give an account in detail of any two short stories included in your course in the context of theme and point of view of the narrator.
7. Give a comprehensive account of the characteristics features of South Africa reflected in Nadine Gardiner's 'One Upon a Time'.
3. YEAR 2006
Attempt FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. We are living in a period of an enormous variety of tensions, individual, collective and cultural and many are being released in the new genre, the short story. Define the short story in the light of the comment.
2. It is the short stories that, the new writers like Sara Suleri and Hanif Qureshi will give us the true particular essence of the art of Fiction. Elaborate the statement.
3. Give a critical commentary on Hemingway's, 'A Clean Well Lighted Place'.
4. In D.H. Lawrence's work men and women of our times have found their own restlessness most accurately mirrored. Comment.
5. The success of H.E. Bates' short stories is due on the whole to concord between the setting and the mood he tries to evoke, and the more the sentiments are revealed the more true they ring. Apply this comment to his story, 'The Woman Who had Imagination'.
6. Compare and contrast 'The Voice' by Pratchett and 'The Voice from the Well' by Amy Tan.
7. Bring out the characteristic features of South Africa reflected in the short stories by Nadine Gardiner.
4. YEAR 2007
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Write a detailed account of the essential elements that contribute make a short story. Also say how it is different from the novel?
2. What are the characteristic elements of a short story that contribute to its distinctive quality?
3. Discuss the insights that Amy Tan offers into the 'alienation experience by those who are displaced from their own surroundings in ---- The Voice from the Wall".
4. Do you think the following stories share a common theme? If so how do the writers present it through the narrative?
5. What are the elements that make 'A Clean Well Lighted Place' --- by Hemingway a classic story?
6. The narrator part of the story in --- 'A Man of the Crowd' --- by E.A. Poe. How does this enhance dramatic element?
7. Write a detailed note on the H.E. Bates: The Woman Who had Imagination.
5. YEAR 2008
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. What features make short story a preferential choice for the readers. Give an elaborate answer to text included in your syllabus.
2. What is the main focus of Achebe in his short story 'Civil Peace'?
3. Critically evaluate the characterization in D.H. Lawrence's 'The Man Who Loved Islands'.
4. Give a detailed analysis of the artistic features of Alice Walker's 'The Strong Horse Tea'.
5. Compare V.S. Naipaul's story 'The Night Watchman's Occurrence Book' with A. Chekhov's.
6. What is Doris Lessing trying to bring to her readers in her short story, 'African Short Story'?
7. Considering Nadine Gardiner's 'Ultimate Safari' and 'Once Upon a Time', which would you appreciate more? Support your answer by giving cogent reasons.
6. YEAR 2009
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. The greatest appeal in the short story lies in its brevity and intensity. Comment, giving examples from the short stories you have read.
2. Do you find elements of retrospective autobiography in Sara Suleri's "The Property of a Woman"?
3. Bring out the thematic and stylistic features of Poe's "The Man of the Crowd".
4. Keeping a close view of the text, discuss the main theme in Hemingway's "A Clean Well Lighted Place."
5. What makes, "The Dead" by Joyce a remarkable example of the modern short story?
6. Does the "Point of View" play an important role in the total effect of a short story?
7. Discuss with reference to, "The Woman Who had Imagination" by Bates.
8. In "A Man of the Crowd" by E.A. Poe, the writer enhances the dramatic interest of the narrative by making the narrator a part of the story. Discuss.
7. YEAR 2009 (Supplementary)
NOT CONDUCTED
8. YEAR 2010
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Most modern short stories dramatize the fragmentation and conflict of our lives. Elaborate with reference to two short stories included in your syllabus.
2. Anton Chekhov analyses human motivation and behaviour in his short stories. Discuss with close reference to the story - The Man Who Lived in a Shell.
3. Write a detailed critical comment on the story Everything That Rises Must Converge by Flannery O' Connor.
4. Elaborate on how Edgar Allen Poe employs all the features of the short story in "The Man of the Crowd".
5. Justify the title of the story The Dead by James Joyce.
6. Critically examine the thematic concern in Amy Tan's short story The Voice From the Wall.
7. Discuss how the story My Son The Fanatic by Hanif Qureshi focuses on the dilemma of living in a cross-cultural society.
9. YEAR 2010 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. The short story very often is structured around a single incident. Discuss two stories in the light of this comment.
2. With close reference to the story - A Civil Peace by Chinua Achebe, discuss the theme of conflict and violence.
3. Critically examine the theme of identity in a globalized world as portrayed in the story My Son the Fanatic by Hanif Qureshi.
4. Discuss Nadine Gardiner's story Once Upon a Time as a modern day fairy tale.
5. Critically examine the narrative technique in the story -The Mummy Awakes by N. Mahfooz.
6. Discuss how the setting contributes to the total effect of the story - A Sunrise on the Veld by Doris Lessing.
7. Justify the title of the story A Day by William Trevor.
10. YEAR 2011
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Discuss the importance of point of view in the narrative technique of at least two short stories from the syllabus.
2. Discuss how Braithwaite in the short story Dream Haiti uses language to voice some of his thematic concerns.
3. Discuss Nadine Gordimer's Once Upon a Time as a modern fairy tale.
4. Discuss the symbolic significance of the title of the story Civil Peace by Achebe.
5. Explore the theme of identity as it is portrayed in Hanif Qureshi's story My Son the Fanatic.
6. Write a detailed commentary on the story A DAY by W. Trevor.
7. Discuss the importance of the setting in Strong Horse Tea by Alice Walker.
11. YEAR 2011 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. The short story as a great genre is an effective medium to dramatize the issues of violence and conflict in the contemporary world. Discuss with reference to two stories included in your syllabus.
2. Discuss how any why Naipaul uses the diary and reporting technique in his short story The Night Watchman's Occurrence Book.
3. Discuss how Lessing in his short story A Sunrise on the Veld uses language to voice some of her thematic concerns.
4. Write a detailed critical comment The Voice by V.S. Pratchett.
5. To what purpose does Mahfooz use language and setting in the story The Mummy Awakes.
6. Write a detailed critical note on the narrative techniques in the story A Clean Well Lighted Place.
7. Discuss the symbolic significance of the title of the story The Man Who Lived in a Shell by Anton Chekhov.
12. YEAR 2012
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. How effectively has human relationship been explored in any two short stories from the syllabus you have read.
2. What is the symbolic significance of Lahore in the story The Property of Woman by Sara Suleri.
3. Trace evidence of Naipaul's craftsmanship as a short story writer in the story The Night Watchman's Occurrence Book.
4. Kafka famously wrote "The Judgment" in the one night in a burst of inspiration, making only minor revisions for the published version. Comment.
5. What is the theme of Once Upon a Time by Nadine Gordimer?
6. Discuss Mahfooz's short story The Mummy Awakes as a political satire.
7. Discuss to what extent Hanif Qureshi is able to surprise readers with no immediate closures and no reassurance of any possible resolution in his short story My Son the Fanatic.
13. YEAR 2012 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. The short story today has become 'the most necessary and natural expression of the age'. Discuss with reference to two short stories from the syllabus you have read.
2. What is the symbolic significance of the title of the story The Property of Woman by Sara Suleri.
3. In Kafka short story The Judgment George accepts and carries out his father's final wish despite his attempts at self-assertion and independence from his father. Can we apply such ideas as wish fulfillment, semantic opposition, or even the Oedipal revolt to shed some light on his actions?
4. What are the main themes in the short story Once Upon a Time by Nadine Gordimer.
5. The images are aligned in such a way that the best way to interpret the story is by symbolic association. Discuss the statement by referring closely to Ben Okri's short story What the Tapster Saw.
6. Analyze Hanif Qureshi's short story My Son the Fanatic as a story of two competing and irreconcilable ideas.
7. What is the significance of this statement: 'Are Egyptians really starving in their own country? A curse upon you, slave!' in the story The Mummy Awakes by Mahfooz.
14. YEAR 2013
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Has the short story today become "The most necessary and natural expression of the age?" Discuss with close reference to the story Everything that Rises Must Converge by Flannery O' Connor.
2. Discuss Nadine Gordimer's short Ultimate Safari as a political satire.
3. Write a detailed critical analysis of The Judgment by Franz Kafka.
4. Analyze how Hanif Qureshi's My Son the Fanatic represents conflicting nations of modern British identity.
5. 'In Okri's story, anything is possible'. To what extent is this valid with reference to 'What the Tapster Saw'?
6. Write a detailed comment on the setting and its significance in African Short Story by Doris Lessing.
7. Discuss the characterization in the story The Dead by James Joyce.
15. YEAR 2014
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Which salient features of a short story do differentiate if from a novel?
2. How does Alice Waider satirize racial and colour discrimination in her short story "Strong Horse Tea"?
3. 'The Man Who Loved Islands' by D.H. Lawrence ridicules idealism through the experience of a man who fails due to the intrusion of his own human imperfection. Discuss it.
4. What is the significance of the framed narrative technique used in the context of the story 'Once Upon a Time' by Nadine Gordimer?
5. Do you think that the title of the story "The Dead" by James Joyce is justifiable?
6. Why does Jonathan, the central character of Achebe's short story "Civil Peace" count himself 'extraordinary lucky' after facing a painful experience of war?
7. Discuss the symbolic significance of the city of Lahore in the story "The Property of Woman" by Sara Suleri.
16. YEAR 2015
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Write a short essay on the salient features of the short story. Also explain how is it different from the novel?
2. In your mind, who is the most forceful character in N. Gardiner's "Once Upon a Time"? Elaborate.
3. Give a critical account of Hemingway's narrative technique in his short story "A Clean Well Lighted Place".
4. Bring out the thematic and stylistic features of Poe's "The Man of the Crowd".
5. Discuss the symbolic significance of the title of the story "Civil Peace" by Achebe.
6. Write a detailed note on the characterization in the story "The Dead" by James Joyce.
7. What is the importance of setting in "Strong Horse Tea" by Alice Walker?

(B) LINGUISTICS

1. YEAR 2004
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Compare structuralism with functionalism while highlighting the prominent features of the said linguistic movements.
2. Write a detailed note on psycholinguistics.
3. (a) Explain manners of articulation with examples.
(b) Transcribe the following pinpointing the primary stress.
Exclusion, Citation, Demonstrate, Appreciate, Avoid.
4. (a) Discuss phrase structure grammar in detail.
(b) Draw P-Maker for the following sentence: All students will study Linguistics.
5. Describe the concept of morph and discuss its different types with examples.
6. Explain semantic field theory.
7. Write notes on TWO of the following:
(i) Componential Analysis
(ii) Generativism
(iii) Segmental phonology
(iv) Comparative Linguistics
2. YEAR 2005
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. The sign is the central fact of language. Discuss in detail with reference to structuralism.
2. Write a comprehensive note on standards and vernaculars.
3. (a) Explain English short, vowels in relation to the cardinal vowels.
(b) Transcribe the following stress according to the grammatical use;
(i) Accent (verb)
(ii) Contest (noun)
(iii) Decrease (verb)
(iv) Export (noun)
(v) Increase (verb)
4. (a) Discuss phrase structure grammar in detail.
(b) Draw tree diagram for the following sentence giving P-Markers: The exercise in the book is very easy.
5. What is lexical semantics? What role do sense relations play in lexical semantics? Discuss in detail.
6. What are the causes of language change? Discuss them with reference to English language.
7. Write notes on TWO of the following:
(i) Language and speech
(ii) Manners of articulation
(iii) Morphology
(iv) Comparative Linguistics
3. YEAR 2006
Attempt FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. How is human language different from animal communication? Discuss its characteristics.
2. Write a detailed note on Psycho-linguistics.
3. (a) Explain manners of articulation with examples
(b) Identify voiceless consonants in the following words;
Left, Station, Vanished, Insurance, Cheque.
4. 'The vocabulary of a language consists of many interrelating networks of relations between word'. Discuss the above statement with reference to semantic field theory.
5. (a) Why is TG the most influential theory of linguistics in modern times? Discuss in detail.
(b) Draw a tree diagram of the following giving P-markers: I am proud of the painting.
6. (a) How do you differentiate between inflectional and derivational morphology. Discuss giving examples for each.
(b) List 'the bound' morphemes in the following words:
Sweetness, Friendless, Unreal, Employment, Preface
7. Write notes on TWO of the following:
(i) Language - Acquisition
(ii) Language and Culture
(iii) Why Study Grammar
8. Transcribe the following words;
Are, cook, hoil, no, now, chips, bead, out, ask, dress, trap, has.
4. YEAR 2007
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Write a note that language is based on the culture and convention of the people who speak it.
2. Write a note on psycholinguistics.
3. Explain the places and manner of articulation. Also tell how voicing takes place.
4. (a) What do you know about phrase structure grammar? Discuss in detail.
(b) Draw a tree diagram for the following sentence giving P-Marker:
The teacher marked him absent.
5. Discuss briefly the major semantic theories.
6. Morphology is the study of the rules governing the internal structure of the words and the international that exits among them. Discuss.
7. Write notes on TWO of the following:
(i) Why Study Grammar?
(ii) First Language Acquisition
(iv) Historical Linguistics
5. YEAR 2008
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. What is language? Discuss some of the characteristics of language.
2. Write a detailed note on sociolinguistics.
3. What the the weak forms? Explain them with the help of examples from R.P.
4. (a) Discuss in detail the IC analysis highlighting its main feature.
(b) Draw a tree diagram for the following sentence give P-Markers:
What is your name?
5. Write a detailed note on Componential Analysis.
6. What do you know about Structuralism? Discuss.
7. Write notes on any TWO of the following:
(i) Historical Linguistics
(ii) English Short Vowels
(iii) Code - Switching
(iv) Generative Grammar
6. YEAR 2009
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. 'Linguistics is the scientific study of grammar'. Elaborate on the statement with your understanding of the study of language.
2. Write a note on psycholinguistics.
3. Explain in detail the manners of articulation of English consonant sounds.
4. (a) What is IC analysis? Discuss its major flaws.
(b) Draw a tree diagram for the following sentence giving P-Markers:
The young teacher taught the young and intelligent students.
5. What is componential analysis? Explain with examples.
6. What contribution can the study of (a) language -- acquisition and (b) pidgins and creoles make to historical linguistics?
7. Write notes on TWO of the following:
(i) Synchronic VS Diachronic Point of View in Linguistics
(ii) Cardinal Vowels
(iii) Morphology
(iv) Generativism
7. YEAR 2009 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Define 'What is language?' and differentiate between language and speech.
2. Write a detailed note on psycholinguistics.
3. What is the difference between the descriptive and prescriptive approach to the investigation of language?
4. (a) What is TG grammar? In what ways is it an improvement on the structuralists' view of grammar?
(b) Draw a tree diagram for the following sentence giving P-Markers:
The boy is sitting on the chair.
5. Explain semantic field theory in detail.
6. What is morphology? What do you understand b the term morpheme? How does it differ from a Phoneme?
7. Write notes on TWO of the following:
(i) Historical Linguistics
(ii) Functionalism
(iii) Received Pronunciation
(iv) Bilingualism
8. YEAR 2010
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Discuss in detail the different branches of linguistics and their scope.
2. Write a note on psycholinguistics.
3. Write a detailed note on places and manner of articulation of English consonants.
4. Discuss briefly the major semantic theories.
5. (a) What is phrase structure grammar? In what ways is it an improvement on IC analysis? Discuss.
(b) Draw a tree diagram for the following sentence giving P-Marker:
I quite quickly drew the picture. OR
Give function labels and form labels for each of the words in the following sentence and also put them in phrase brackets:
Our students are very intelligent.
6. What did the linguist Ferdinand de Saussure contribute to the study of modern linguistics. Discuss.
7. Write notes on TWO of the following:
(i) Bilingualism
(ii) Language and Culture
(iii) Morphology
(iv) Transcribe the following:
(a) a cup of tea
(b) bread and butter
(c) a fly in the ointment
(d) grapes are sour
(e) hand in glove with
9. YEAR 2010 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. What is language? Give its different definitions given by different linguists. List the various characteristics of language on the basis of these definitions.
2. Write a note on stylistics. Discuss its significance.
3. What do you understand by diphthongs? Explain to them in detail.
4. Write a detailed note on historical linguistics.
5. (a) What is IC analysis? Discuss its major flaws.
(b) Draw a tree diagram for the following sentence giving P-Marker:
I might have been reading her letter.
6. What is semantic field theory? How does it differ from componential analysis?
7. Write notes on TWO of the following:
(i) Morphology
(ii) Levels of Linguistic Analysis
(iii) Bilingualism
(iv) Transcribe the following phrases:
(a) Get the better of
(b) Hard and fast
(c) Keep up appearance
(d) Run short of
(e) Play second fiddle
10. YEAR 2011
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Identify those features of linguistics which qualify it to classified as a 'science'. Support with examples.
2. Write a comprehensive note on sociolinguistics and its significance.
3. Discuss and describe the English Consonants of RP in terms of their manner and place of articulation.
4. Discuss in detail the major semantic theories.
5 (a) How is Transformational Generative Grammar different from IC analysis and phrase structure grammar. Explain with suitable examples.
(b) Draw a tree diagram for the following sentence giving P-Marker"
They have been reading this book for three days.
6. Briefly trace the growth and development of historical linguistics.
7. Write notes on any TWO of the following:
(i) Language Acquisition
(ii) Voicing
(iii) Bilingualism
(iv) Morphology
11. YEAR 2011(Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. What is language? What are its chief characteristics?
2. Critically examine sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics as branches of linguistics.
3. What do you understand by morphological analysis? Give examples of both 'free' and 'bound' morphemes.
4. Write a note on historical linguistics.
5. (a) What is IC analysis? Discuss its major flaws.
(b) Draw a tree diagram for the following sentence giving P-Marker:
Suddenly the lion appeared before the Man.
6. Differentiate between semantic field theory and componential analysis.
7. Write notes on TWO of the following:
(i) Stylistics
(ii) Descriptive VS Prescriptive Linguistics
(iii) Bilingualism
(iv) Transformational Grammar
12. YEAR 2012
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. What is linguistics? Discuss how different levels of linguistics are linked to each other?
2. Discuss in detail the functions of various articulators with the help of examples.
3. What is the difference between the prescriptive and descriptive approaches of grammar?
4. Describe RP consonants with the help of manner and place of articulation.
5. (a) How does Transformational Generative Grammar answer questions left unanswered by structuralists? Explain with the help of examples.
(b) Draw a tree diagram for the following sentence giving P-Marker:
The students respect their teachers everywhere in Pakistan.
6. What is Semantics? Describe some types of meaning.
Write notes on any TWO of the following:
(i) Phrase Structure Grammar
(ii) Synchronic and Diachronic Approaches
(iii) English RP Long Vowels
(iv) English Plosives
13. YEAR 2012 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. What is Phonetics and what are its main branches?
2. Write a detailed note on Bilingualism.
3. Write a detailed note on Structuralism.
4. Compare and contrast the major Semantic theories.
5. (a) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the application of Transformational Generative Grammar.
(b) Draw a tree diagram for the following sentence giving P-Marker:
She is a true artist.
6. Critically analyze the description of RP vowels (long, short, diphthongs)
7. Write notes on any TWO of the following:
(i) Structuralism
(ii) Morphology
(iii) Voicing
(iv) Stylistics
14. YEAR 2013
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. Discuss the major differences and similarities between Descriptive and Prescriptive Linguistics.
2. What are some advantages and disadvantages of Bilingualism as a phenomenon.
3. Explain English diphthongs with reference to the cardinal vowel system.
4. (a) What are the characteristics of Phrase Structure Grammar. Explain with the help of examples.
(b) Draw a tree diagram for the following sentence giving P-Marker:
The house has a beautiful garden and driveway.
5. What is Structural Semantics? Explain with the help of examples.
6. Discuss Synchronic and Diachronic approaches.
7. Write notes on any TWO of the following:
(i) Homonymy and Polysemy
(ii) English RP Consonants
(iii) Voicing
(iv) Multilingualism
15. YEAR 2014
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. How is human language different from animal communication?
2. Write a detailed description of Psycholinguistics.
3. Describe in detail the fricatives, affricates and plosives of RP with reference to manner and place of articulation.
4. (a) What is I.C. Analysis? Discuss its major flaws.
(b) Draw a tree diagram for the following sentence giving P-Maker:
The man is waiting outside the dentist's office.
5. How do the concepts of homonymy and synonymy aid in Componential Analysis?
6. Discuss some of the Stylistic devices in language which are used to produce expressive or literary style.
7. Write notes on any TWO of the following:
(i) Diphthongs
(ii) Bilingualism
(iii) Morphology
(iv) The Cardinal Vowel System
16. YEAR 2015
Attempt any FOUR questions. All questions carry equal marks. 
1. How can the study of Linguistics provide a better insight into language and Literary studies?
2. Explain the disciplines of Psycho-linguistics and Socio-linguistics.
3. Describe in detail RP long and short vowels.
4. (i) What is I.C. analysis? Discuss its major flaws.
(ii) Draw a tree diagram for the following sentence giving P-Markers: He leaned against a large shady tree.
5. Discuss semantic theories in detail.
6. What are the major component of Stylistic analysis?
7.  Write notes on any TWO of the following:
(i) Diphthongs
(ii) Syntax
(iii) PR Fricatives
(iv) Semantics

(C) LITERATURE IN ENGLISH 
AROUND THE WORLD
1. YEAR 2004
NOT CONDUCTED
2. YEAR 2005
Attempt any FOUR questions in all. You have to attempt at least ONE question from each section. 
SECTION I - DRAMA
1. Discuss in detail how Lorca presents the oppressive world of the female characters in The House of Alba.
2. Write a critical evaluation of the characterization in Brain Friel's play Translations.
SECTION II - NOVEL
3. Discuss the thematic concerns of Ngugi's The River, Between.
4. One Day in the Life of Denis Ivanovich is an indictment of the tyrannical system in the Gulag. Discuss with reference to the text.
SECTION III - POETRY
5. Make a critical evaluation of the stylistic features of Alamgir Hashimi's Autumnal and But Where is the Sky.
6. Select two poems from the African poets you have studied and write a detailed critical evaluation on their themes and stylistic features.
7. Discuss the use of imagery in Taufiq Rafat's poetry.
3. YEAR 2006
Attempt FOUR questions. You have to attempt at least ONE questions from each sections. All questions carry equal marks.
SECTION I - DRAMA
1. What do you think is the most powerful character in Lorea's The House of Bernarda Alba? Justify your answer with illustrations from the play.
2. Justify the title of Brain Friel's play Translations.
SECTION II - NOVEL
3. Discuss the dominant impression of African society as depicted by Ngugi in The River Between.
4. Examine the characterization in Solzhenitsyn's  novel A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovitvh.
SECTION III - POETRY
5. With close reference to at least two poems examine poets appraisal of landscape or Nature.
6. Critically evaluate Daud Kamal's poem The Street of Nightingale's.
7. Compare and contrast Ben Okri and Achebe's poems.
4. YEAR 2007
Attempt any FOUR questions. You have to attempt at least ONE question from each section. All questions carry equal marks. 
SECTION I - DRAMA
1. With close reference to the text discuss the main thematic in the play Translation by Brain Friel.
2. Critically evaluate the female characters and their characterization in Lorca's The House of Bernarda Alba.
SECTION II - NOVEL
3. Solzhenitsyn's novel One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovitch is a good example of social Realism. Discuss.
4. Justify the implications of the title of Ngugi's novel The River Between.
SECTION III - POETRY
5. Critically evaluate one of the following poems:
The Stone Chat by Taufiq Rafat, The Humble Administrators' Garden by Virkram Seth.
6. Discuss how the imagery used evokes a strong sense of place in the poem The Country at any Shoulder by Moniza Alvi.
7. Write a note on the major thematic concerns and style of Across India: February 1952.
5. YEAR 2008
Attempt any FOUR questions. You have to attempt at least ONE question from each section. All questions carry equal marks. 
SECTION I - DRAMA
1. What is the significance of the title Translation in Brain Friel's play Translation.
2. Discuss some of the major thematic concerns of the play House of Bernarda Alba.
SECTION II - NOVEL
3. Why does Solzhenitsyn chose to show a typical day in the life of a prisoner in his novel One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovitch.
4. Analyze critically the symbolic significance of 'The Snake River' in the novel The River Between.
SECTION III - POETRY
5. Critically evaluate ONE of the following poems:
(a) Moniza Alvi's The Country at My Shoulder
(b) Zulfiqar Chose's The Mystique of Roots
6. Discuss the ways in which Vikram seth uses irony to evoke various themes in 'The Humble Administrator's Garden.
7. Compare and contrast the exploration of Nature in Alamgir Hashmi's poem 'Autumn' with Shirly Lim;s 'Monsoon History'.
6. YEAR 2009
Attempt any FOUR questions. You have to attempt at least ONE question from each section. All questions carry equal marks. 
SECTION I - DRAMA
1. Mamus: "I understand the Lancey's perfectly but people like you puzzle me". What is the importance of the relationship between Manus and Yolland in Brain Friel's play Translations?
2. Discuss the characterization in Lorca's The House of Bernarda Alba.
SECTION II - NOVEL
3. With close reference to the events in The River Between by Ngugi, explore Chege's influence on Waiyaki.
4. How do the camp authorities exert control on the Zeks in Solzhenitsyn's novel One Day in the Life of Ivan Denishovitch?
SECTION III - POETRY
5. Critically evaluate ONE of the following poems:
(a) Maki Kureshi's Christmas Letter to My Sister
(b) Nissim Ezekiel's Night of the Scorpion
6. Compare the themes of the poems "A Remote Beginning" by Daud Kamal and "Thinking of Mohenjo Daro" by Taufiq Rafat.
7. Critically evaluate the style in Alamgir Hashmi's peom "But Where in the Sky?"
7. YEAR 2009 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions. You have to attempt at least ONE question from each section. All questions carry equal marks. 
SECTION I - DRAMA
1.How far can Friel's play Translations be described as a play about political power?
2. 'Laughter and tears are the two poles of Lorca's theatre.' Discuss with relevance to The House of Bernarda Alba.
SECTION II - NOVEL
3. Near the end of The River Between Kinuthia says to Waiyaki "I will never leave you. Whatever the others do ...". Describe the support Kinuthia gives to Waiyaki throughout the novel and explain how and why he fails him in the end.
4. At the end of the day Shukhov ignores the negative experiences of his day and focuses on the positive ones. Discuss his characterization in Solzhenitsyn's novel One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovitch.
SECTION III - POETRY
5. Critically evaluate ONE of the following poems:
(a) Taufiq Rafat's Thinking of Mohenjo Daro
(b) Daud Kamal's Reproductions
6. Elaborate upon the use of imagery in Derek Walcott's A Far Cry From Africa
7. Write a detailed critical note on "Across India" by Zulfiqar Chose and "The Last Visit" by Taufiq Rafat.
8. YEAR 2010
Attempt any FOUR questions. You have to attempt at least ONE question from each section. All questions carry equal marks. 
SECTION I - DRAMA
1. Critics claim that 'laughter and tears are two poles of Lorea's theatre'. Discuss with close reference to the House of Bernarda Alba.
2. How far can Brain Friel's play Translations be described as a play about political power?
SECTION II - NOVEL
3. Compare and contrast the characters of Fetyukov and Shukov in the novel One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovitch.
4. How does Ngugi examines the historical impact of colonialism on Kenya in his novel The River Between?
SECTION III - POETRY
5. Critically examine ONE of the following poems: 
(a) The Street of Nightingales
(b) Mango Seedlings
6. Discuss the major thematic concerns in Moniza Alvi's The Country at my Shoulder. 
7. Discuss critically Alamgir Hashmi's use of myth in Encounter with the Sirens.
9. YEAR 2010 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions. You have to attempt at least ONE question from each section. All questions carry equal marks. 
SECTION I - DRAMA
1. Compare and contrast the characters of women in The House of Bernarda Alba.
2. Critically analyze those thematic concerns in Friel's Translations which justify the title.
SECTION II - NOVEL
3. Discuss in detail the narrative style of The River Between.
4. Justify the title and the implications of the title of One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich.
SECTION III - POETRY
5. Write a critical appreciation of ONE of the following:
(a) Thy Mystique of Roots
(b) But Where is the Sky?
6. Discuss the narrative style of Maki Kureshi's 'A Christmas Letter to My Sister'.
7. Compare and contrast Derek Wallcot's 'A Far Cry from Africa' and Ben Okri's 'An African Clergy'.
10. YEAR 2011
Attempt any FOUR questions. You have to attempt at least ONE question from each section. All questions carry equal marks. 
SECTION I - DRAMA
1. With close reference to the play The House of Bernarda Alba discuss how Lorca erases the limits between life and fiction.
2. Friel has said that the play Translations is primarily about language. Do you agree? Discuss by referring to the text closely.
SECTION II - NOVEL
3. Waiyaki commands the respect of his people from an early age. What qualities do you find in him to explain the effect which he has on others in The River Between by Ngugi.
4. Discuss the narrative technique and style of Solzhenitsyn in One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich.
SECTION III - POETRY
5. Critically examine ONE of the following poems:
(a) The Humble Administrator's Garden by Vikram Seth
(b) An African Elegy by Ben Okri
6. Discuss the major thematic concerns in Taufiq Rafat's The Last Visit.
7. Compare and contrast Derek Walcott's "A Far Cry From Africa" and Ben Okri's "An African Elegy"
11. YEAR 2011 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions. You have to attempt at least ONE question from each section. All questions carry equal marks. 
SECTION I - DRAMA
1. Critically analyze the conflict between mothers and daughters in The House of Bernarda Alba by Lorca.
2. Discuss in detail the relationship between Manus and Yolland in Friel's play Translations.
SECTION II - NOVEL
3. By close reference to the events in the novel The River Between by Ngugi Mathe Clear Cheg's influence on Waiyaki.
4. What does Solzhenitsyn's novel One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich relevant in today's world.
SECTION III - POETRY
5. Critically examine ONE of the following poems: 
(a) The Stone Chat by Taufiq Rafat
(b) An African Elegy by Ben Okri
6. Discuss the major thematic concerns in Nissim Ezekiel's poem "Good Bye Part for Miss Pushpa T.S."
7. Discuss critically Anna Akhmatova's "Prologue, Epilogue".
12. YEAR 2012
Attempt any FOUR questions. You have to attempt at least ONE question from each section. All questions carry equal marks. 
SECTION I - DRAMA
1. Discuss some of the thematic concerns of the play The House of Bernard Alba by Lorca.
2. What is the significance of Owen in the play Translations by Friel.
SECTION II - NOVEL
3. Discuss the symbolic significance of 'The Snake River' in the novel The River Between by Nguigi.
4. Prisoner Shukov and Fetyukov are very different from each other. Why do you think the author (Solzhenitsyn) sets them as contrasting characters in the novel One Day in the life of Ivan Denisovitch. Discuss.
SECTION III - POETRY
5. Critically examine ONE of the following poems:
(a) A Far Cry from Africa by Derek Walcott
(b) Mango Seedling by Chinua Achebe
6. Discuss the major thematic concerns in Nissim Ezekiel's poem Night of the Scorpion.
7. Compare and contrast Zulfiqar Ghose's A Memory of Asia and Shirley Lim's Monsoon History.
13. YEAR 2012 (Supplementary)
Attempt any FOUR questions. You have to attempt at least ONE question from each section. All questions carry equal marks. 
SECTION I - DRAMA
1. Discuss the significance of Bernarda's characters in the play The House of Bernarda Alba by Lorea.
2. Manus: "I understand the Lnacey's perfectly but people like you puzzle me." What is the importance of the relationship between Manus and Yolland in the play Translations by Friel.
SECTION II - NOVEL
3. Discuss the significance of Waiyaki and Nyambura's relationship in the novel The River Between.
4. "The adaptability and resilience of the human spirit in the face of a de-humanizing environment is what makes the novel One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovitch.
SECTION III - POETRY
5. Critically examine ONE of the following poems:
(a) The Stone Chat by Taufiq Rafat
(b) Kite by Maki Kurishi
6. Discuss the major thematic concerns in Moniza Alvi's poem The Country at My Shoulder
7. Compare and contrast Anna Akhmatovat's peoms Prologue and Epilogue.
14. YEAR 2013
Attempt any FOUR questions. You have to attempt at least ONE question from each section. All questions carry equal marks. 
SECTION I - DRAMA
1. Do you agree that Lorca discusses the rights of women in the play The House of Bernarda Alba.
2. What is the significance of the title of Brain Friel's play Translations.
SECTION II - NOVEL
3. Discuss the qualities in Waiyaki that wins him the respect and confidence of his people in Ngugi's novel The River Between.
4. What is the main theme in the novel One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich.
SECTION III - POETRY
5. Discuss two of your favourite poems with reference to the style and subject matter.
6. How does Maki Kureshi evokes a sense of place in the poem Christmas Letter to My Sister.
7. Write a critical analysis of two African poets you have studied focusing on the multi-cultured and hatred experiences they draw on in their work.
15. YEAR 2014
Attempt any FOUR questions. ONE question from each section. All questions carry equal marks.
SECTION I - DRAMA
1. Explore the manner in which Adela Strives to be free of the shackles of moral strictures and expectations that she faces in The House of Bernarda Alba.
2. What is the historical and cultural significance of the play Translations by Brain Friel.
SECTION II - NOVEL
3. Discuss the main theme of the novel One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich.
4. What are the major concerns that Ngugi discusses in The River Between.
SECTION III - POETRY
5. Write a critical analysis of either Far Cry for Africa by Derek Walcott or African Elegy by Ben Okri.
6. Discuss the poetry of Taufiq Rafat with special reference to the poems included in your syllabus.
7. Write a note on the experience of hatred and multiculturalism as drawn by the African poets.
16. YEAR 2015


(D) ESSAY

1. YEAR 2004
Write an essay on any ONE of the following topics:
(i) "Free of every theory, accepting all of life, rejecting nothing, uniting the real and the poetic, appealing to the most various men, to a rude workman as to wit, Shakespeare's drama is great river of life and beauty".
(ii) "D --- for a life of sensation rather than of thoughts". (J.Keats)
(iii) Allegory in English Literature
(iv) Romanticism in English poetry
(v) Shakespeare's tragic vision
(vi) Novel in Victorian times
(vii) T.S. Eliot as the most dominant writer of twentieth century
(viii) Literature and society
(ix) Teaching of English literature in Pakistan
2. YEAR 2005
Write any essay on any ONE of the following topics:
(i) Poetry as the harmonious unison of man with nature
(ii) Shakespeare as the writer of all times
(iii) "There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Which taken at the flood, leads on to fortune
Omitted, all the voyage of their life
Is bound in shallows and in miseries.
On such a full sea are we now afloat,
And we most take the current when it serves,
Or lose our ventures."
(iv) Milton's Grand Style
(v) Keats' famous Odes
(vi) Art for life's Sake
(vii) Satire in English Literature
(viii) Foster's A Passage to India a representative view of British thinking on India.
(ix) English as an International Language
3. YEAR 2006
Write an essay on ONE of the following topics:
(i) Spenser's 'Faerie Queene'
(ii) Romanticism vs Classicism
(iii) Shakespeare's major comedies
(iv) Eighteen Century Novel
(v) Major Poetry in 19th Century Novels
(vi) Tragic Vision in Hardy's Novels
(vii) Art and Morality
(viii) O'Neill's  Tragic Vision
(ix) Teaching of English in Pakistani Universities
4. YEAR 2007
Attempt an essay on ONE of the following: 
(i) Shakespeare's vision  as a writer of tragedies for all times
(ii) Spenser as a 'Poet's Poet'.
(iii) The Metaphysical Poetry in English Literature
(iv) 'I ma certain of nothing but of the holiness of the Heart's affections and the truth of the imagination --- what the imagination seizes as Beauty must be truth' (Keats)
(v) Art for Life's Sake
(vi) "But for poetry the idea is everything; the rest is a world of illusion, of divine illusion. Poetry attaches its emotion to the idea; the idea is the fact. That strongest part of our religion today is unconscious poetry".
(vii) New Trends in Twentieth Century
(viii) Emily Dickinson As a Love Poetess
(ix) Teaching of English Literature in Pakistani Universities
5. YEAR 2008
Write an essay on ONE of the following: 
(i) Victorian Poetry
(ii) Lyricism
(iii) Humorous Writers
(iv) The Stream of Consciousness Novel
(v) Effects of French Revolution on English Romantic Poets
(vi) New England Irish Catholicism in O'Neil's Plays
(vii) Imitation
(viii) Jane Austen's Limited Range
(ix) Shakespearean Tragedy
6. YEAR 2009
Write an essay on ONE of the following topics: 
(i) Art and Morality
(ii) Golden Age of Satire
(iii) Victorian Poetry
(iv) Shakespeare's Vision As a Writer of Tragedies for All Times
(v) George Eliot As the First Modern Novelist
(vi) Milton's Grand Style
(vii) Criticism and Creation
(viii) Modern Drama
(ix) Imitation
7. YEAR 2009 (Supplementary)
Write an essay on ONE of the following topics:
(i) Shakespeare's Major Comedies
(ii) Hardy's Tragic Vision
(iii) The Age of Nightmare and Anxiety
(iv) Novel As the Modern Epic
(v) The Critic is a Parasite
(vi) Irony in Jane Austen
(vii) Art Lies in Concealing Art
(viii) Patriotism in English Literature
(ix) Twentieth Century Poetry
8. YEAR 2010
Write an essay on ONE of the following topics:
(i) New England Irish Catholicism in O'Neil's Plays
(ii) Trends in 20th Century Literature
(iii) Classicism and Romanticism
(iv) Nature in 18th Century Poetry
(v) Shakespeare As an Artist
(vi) Psychological Realism in Dickens
(vii) Heroic Couplet
(viii) Criticism and Literature
(ix) Bacon As an Essayist
9. YEAR 2010 (Supplementary)
Write an essay on ONE of the following topics: 
(i) Victorian Poetry
(ii) Style is the Man
(iii) Shakespeare's Fools
(iv) School of Absurdities
(v) The Study of Biography
(vi) Imagery
(vii) The Rise of English Novel
(viii) A. Miller's Tragedies
(ix) T.S. Eliot As a Critic
10. YEAR 2011
Write an essay on any ONE of the following topics: 
(i) Milton's Grand Style
(ii) Modern Element in Hardy
(iii) Wordsworth As a Poet of Nature
(iv) O'Neil's Tragic Vision
(v) Shakespeare's Heroines
(vi) The Stream of Consciousness
(vii) Modern Poetry
(viii) Criticism and Creation
(ix) Sonnet
11. YEAR 2011 (Supplementary)
Write an essay on any ONE of the following topics: 
(i) Allegory, Fable and Parable
(ii) Shakespeare's Use of Prose
(iii) Rise of Novel in 18th Century
(iv) Tragic Vision in Hardy's Novels
(v) Art and Religion
(vi) Spenser As a Poet's Poet
(vii) Emily Dickinson As a Love Poetess
(viii) Trends in 20th Century Literature
(ix) A Critic is a Parasite
12. YEAR 2012
Write an essay on any ONE of the following topics: 
(i) Shakespearean Tragedy
(ii) Greek Mythology
(iii) French Revolution and Romantic Poetry
(iv) Russell's 'Philosophy and Politics'
(v)  Victorian Novels
(vi) Morality Plays
(vii) English As a Medium of Instruction
(viii) Hemingway: Life and Works
(ix) Odes in Poetry
13. YEAR 2012 (Supplementary)
Write an essay on any ONE of the following topics:
(i) Romanticism VS Classicism
(ii) Art and Morality
(iii) Milton As an Epic Poet
(iv) Bacon's Prose Style
(v) Aristotle's Tragic Hero
(vi) Metaphysical Poets
(vii) Science Fiction
(viii) Defense of Poetry
(ix) Major Themes in "Pride and Prejudice"
14. YEAR 2013
Write an essay on ONE of the following topics: 
(i) Milton's Grand Style
(ii) Bacon As an Essayist
(iii) Greek Tragedy
(iv) Metaphysical Poets
(v) English As a Foreign Language
(vi) Symbolism in Poetry
(vii) Victorian Novelists
15. YEAR 2014
Write an essay on any ONE of the following topics:
(i) Renaissance
(ii) Shakespearean Tragedy
(iii) Aristotle's Poetics
(iv) Milton as an Epic Poet
(v) Bertrand Russell as a Philosopher
(vi) Modern Drama
(vii) Victorian Novelists
16. YEAR 2015
Write an essay on any ONE of the following topics:
(i) Metaphysical Poets
(ii) Shakespeare as a Playwright
(iii) American Literature
(iv) T.S. Eliot as a Critic
(v) Gulliver's Travels as Mock Utopia
(vi) Victorian Age
(vii) Defence of Poetry

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