1. The constituent elements of tragedy work together to define first its complication and then the denouement. Explain with reference to Aristotle's Poetics. OR
The art of tragedy aims itself at the audience. Discuss with reference to Aristotle's Poetics.
2. Explain Raymond Williams, reading of 18th and 19th century tragic theory. OR
In Bertoit Brecht the rejection of tragedy has many motives and takes many forms. Explain.
3. What are some of the assumptions of classic Realism that New Criticism attempts to challenge? OR
How can meaning be constructed by reproducing what is familiar?
4. 'You cannot value him (artist) alone, you must set him, for contrast and comparison, among the dead'? Discuss with reference to T.S. Eliot's Tradition and Individual Talent. OR
'Difference between art and event is absolute'. Explain with reference to T.S. Eliot's essay Tradition and Individual Talent.
5. The poet is a 'maker'. Justify in the light of Sidney's essay An Apology for Poetry. OR
According to A.G. George, Sidney's essential contribution to criticism lies in his redefinition of poetry in such a manner as to make the moral content of poetry a part of its essential requirement. How far would you agree with A.G. George's reading of An Apology for Poetry?
6. Critically appreciate any ONE of the following:
(i) One day I wrote her name upon the strand,
But came the waves and washed it away;
Again I wrote it, with a second hand,
But came the tide, and made my pains his prey.
'Vain man, 'said she, 'that dost in vain assay
A mortal thing so to immortalize;
For I myself shall like to this decay,
And eke my names be wiped our likewise',
'Not so,' quoth I. 'Let baser things devise
To die in dust, but you shall live by frame;
My verse your virtues rare shall eternise,
And in the heavens with your glorious name.
Where, when as death shall all the world subdue,
Our love shall live, and later life renew'.
(ii) I live in one city
But then it becomes another.
The point where they mesh --
I call it mine.
Dacoits creep from caves
In the banks of the Indus
One of them is displaced.
From Trafalgar Square
He dominated London, his face.
Masked by scarves and sunglasses.
He draws towards him all the conflict
of the metropolis -- his speech
A barrage of grenades, rocket launchers.
He marks time with his digital watch
The pigeons get under his feet.
In the double city the beggar's cry
Travels from one region to the next.